Community Study of Wellington, Kansas

Title

Community Study of Wellington, Kansas

Scroll down to view and search inside this booklet.

Subject

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Health information

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Industry

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Public Welfare

Kansas History -- Wellington, Kansas Women's Service Clubs

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Public Schools

Kansas History--Recreation

Kansas History -- Wellington, Kansas Commercial Recreation

Kansas History -- Activities of School Children in Wellington, Kansas

Kansas History -- Wellington, Kansas Hospitals

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Child Welfare

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Delinquency

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Family Welfare

Kansas History--Mexican Population in Wellington, Kansas

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas County Poor Relief and Farm

Kansas History--The Red Cross

Kansas History--Wellington, Kansas Financial Statement

Kansas History--Recommendations for Wellington, Kansas

Description

This is a March 1921 Community Study of Wellington, Kansas. It includes information about Health Welfare, Child Welfare, Service Clubs and what is available in the community as well as recommendations for what is needed in the community.

Creator

unknown

Source

Wellington Public Library, Wellington, Kansas

Publisher

Wellington Public Library, Wellington, Kansas

Date

1921

Relation

Wellington History Collection, Wellington Public Library, Wellington, Kansas

Format

application/pdf

Language

English

Type

Manuscripts

Coverage

March, 1921



Citation
unknown, “Community Study of Wellington, Kansas,” Wellington Digital Collections, accessed December 1, 2022, https://wellington.digitalsckls.info/item/16.
Text

C0MMUNITY STUDY OF
WELLINGTON KANS
CONTENTS
Introduction- - -- -- - - - - - 1
Industry- - - — -------------------------- — - -- -- - -4
General public welfare- - -- -- - - -- -- -- -- - -- -- --5
W0men's Service Club- ------ - -- --- -----------------7
City Public Schools - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - -8
Recreation- - -- -- -- -- -- - - -- -- -- -- - -- -- --9
Public Provision for Recreation- - -- -- -- -- -- - -10
Commercial Recreation- - ----------------------- -12
Other Recreational Organizations- - -- -- -- -- -- -14
Activities of School Children of 4th, 5th and 6th Grades- -15
Heal the- - -- - - - - -- -- -- -- - - - -- -- -- -- -- -21
Hospitals- - -- -- -- - ---- --- -24 —
Public Health Nursing- - - — - — - -- -- -- -- - -26
Recommendations- - -- -- -- -- -- -- - - - ----------------------- -30
Child Welfare- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -31
Delinquency- - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - -32
Recommendations- - -- -- -- -- -- — - - - — - - -34
Family Welfare- - - - - ------ - -- ---- ---- --- -------------------35
Mexicans - -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- ----------------- -- ------36
County Poor Relief and Farm - -- -- -- - - -- -- - 37
The Red Cross- - -- -- -------------------------— ---------------- -41
Financial Statement- - -- ------- -- --- --- ----------- -------- -42
Recommendations- ------------------------------------------- — -45
Recommendations of Executive Committee of Chapter- - - - -46 Supplement- - -- -- - - -- - - -- -- -- -- -- --47
March-1921
COMMUNITY STUDY 0F WELLINGTON KANSAS
This study was undertaken at the request of the Wellington Branch of the Sumner County Chapter of the American Bed Cross. It had been their wish for some time to spend certain funds in their hands in doing some Welfare Work for Wellington. Before deciding on what field or fields they could, to best advantage, devote their efforts and time, they desired that a more or less intensive study be made tot several problems in the community,so that some rather definite facts might be gathered upon which to make their decisions. It was hoped that the worker who conducts the study, together with the advisory Committee would be able to make some definite recommendations to the local branch after the study was completed.
This Advisory Committee was organized at the inspection of the work. Re-presentives of all public and private interests, which are in any connection with Welfare Work, were asked to serve on the committee, the function of which was to meet with the worker who was conducting the study from time to time as the work progressed, hear her reports and discuss the problems and questions involved. After the completion of the study this committee was also to receive the report and recommendation which were to be able to be made to the branch organization: These to be presented as findings and conclusions after the completion of the study.
The advisory committee was as follows.
Mrs. Robert C. Shupe, Chairman Mrs. S. B. Pierpont
Mrs. George F. Elsass Mrs. Lena Bush
Mrs. C. L. Scott Mrs. Glenn Willett
Mr. C. L. Scott Mr. John M. Pile
Mrs. Chas. F. Martin Mr. Chas. McCormack
Dr. H. L. Cobean Mr. A. D. Catlin
Mrs, Kate Sniggs. Mrs. J. W. Rutherford
Four meetings were held during the study was being made, the last one being held to hear the final report and recommendations.
The branch organization, upon being asked, mentioned several problems that they were most interested in than any other. These were: Poverty, Juvenile Delinquency, Recreation and Illnesses apt to be chronic such as tuberculosis and venereal diseases.
They considered that, perhaps the best line of endeavor for them would be in one or more of those fields.
One member of the Community Study Staff of the Southwestern Division conducted the study, spending the period from February 25th to March 22nd, in gathering data.
During this time Miss Jean Jones, Director of the Community Study Service and Miss Pa Parr, Division Representative for this Chapter, spent some time in Wellington. Miss
pearl Laptad, Nursing Supervisor, also called on the Chapter regarding Nursing Service.

Two meetings of the Branch Executive Committee and one meeting of the Chapter Committee were held during the time the study was being made.
General Facts regarding County and City History. Population. Industires.
Sumner County is situated in the southern central part of the State, the general character of its population and make up industrially, being rural and agricultural. The County was organized in 1871 with an area of 765,393 acres. At the present time the county has a population of 39,320-(1917 estimate.) The composition of the population is given as follows in the 1910 census.
-2-
White---------30,318 Native Parents 25,765
Indian 837 Foreign parents 1,410
Colored 328 Mixed 1,493
Foreign Born white 1,650
Towns incorporated -- ---------------------------------------------------11
Population of Towns incorporated- ------ - -- --- -------14,312
The county ranked thirteenth in population in 1917, in the state. It had at that time an assessed valuation of $63,309,642.00. There were 280.74 miles of main track of railroad and the water acreage was 2684.
According to the Kansas State Board of Agriculture Report for 1917-18 the statistics for farm and crop for Sumner County showed that Winter Wheat, Spring Wheat,
Corn, Oats, Rye and Barley in the order named, were the largest crops. A total of twenty eight crops were named. In 1918 a total of 500,340 acres were famed and this land was valued at $14,202,505.29. The same report of the Agricultural Board showed for farm products, that: Animals Slaughtered, poultry and Eggs, Wool, Cheese and Butter in the order named were the greatest products. These were valued in 1918 at $17,215,492.44
It is of interest to know that for the five years ending in 1918 Kansas was the leading state in wheat production, this being the greatest in the history of the state. The production was of course stimulated by war conditions.
HISTORY GOVERNMENT AND POPULATION
Wellington is the county seat of the county. It was incorporated as a city of the third class by a decree of the District Court of the County on November 13th,
1872 and was declared a city of the second class by proclamation of the Governor on February 14th, 1880, having attained a population of over 2,000, namely, 2231. From this time on to about 1886, the city had phenomenal growth, Just as many did, in the state at that time due to the booms in various localities.
The large salt mines in or near Wellington attracted thousands for employment, and business pruposes, so that by 1886 the population was 7157. There were horse cars on the streets, real estate was very high in price, all commodities selling for inflated prices; in short, all the conditions of a big boom prevailed.
In a year or so, however, the bubble was pricked. By 1895 the population had declined to about 3500. Since that time the growth of the city has been more normal; a steady but slow rise has taken place. In 1900 the population was given as 4245; in 1910-7034, and in 1920-7048. Whereas the population of the time of the boom was drawn from far distant states and was probably of a more roving type, the more recent residents are being drawn from the rural sections of the county and state, largely.
One indication that this is true is that the percent of tenantry on the farm in the county has been steadily in creasing. At present it is said to be fifty four per cent.
On March 10, 1910, the commission form of government was adopted by a special election. Accor ding to this plan of government the city affairs are under the administration of the following officers; Three Commissioner, the mayor being one of these the Commissioner of Public Utilitites and Commissioner of Fianance and Revenue being the other two; City clerk;City Attorney;City Treasurer; Police Judge, City Marshal, Street Commissioner; Park Commissioner; City Health Officer; Ci ty Engineer; Plumbing Inspector City Council; Board of Health( constituted by the City Health Officer, City Marhsll and City attorney); Superintendent of public Works, Fire Department: Cemetery Sexton and janitor of the City Hall. The Police Department Consists of the Police Judge, City Marshall, and two policemen. The Board of Education consists of eight members. There are
3.
two women members on the board, one the vice president and the other a member at large. There is a Welfare Board created by ordinance, of five members appointed to supervise and censor amusements brought to the city.
The present tax rate for the city is $30.30 per $1,000 and the valuation of property for taxation purposes was, in 1920, $7,658,547.00
The budget for the city, for the current fiscal year was estimated as follows:
General Revenue-( .001)- Salaries $4,700.00
Expenses 4,000.00 $8,700.00
Police Department (General Fund) Salaries 4,660.00
Expenses 400.00 5,060.00
Fire Department-(00125) Slaries 4,380.00
Expenses 300.00
New Truck 4,465.00 9,145.00
Band Fund-(.00015) 1,200.00
Health Department- (General Fund) Salary 300.00
Expenses 50.00 350.00
Public Park Fund-(.0005) (no salary) 3,500.00
Library Fund-(.0005) salaries 1,800.00
Expenses 1,700.00 3,500.00

•Cemetery Fund(Self Sustaining) Salary 1,440.00
Expenses 2,000.00 3,440.00
Hospital Appropriation-(.00025) 2,000.00
Street Department- (.005) Salaries 1,500.00
Contracts for sweeping and cleaning 3,300.00
Expenses 4,000.00 8,800.00
Water and Light Department-(00075) Salaries 20,170.00
66,500.00 86.670.00
GRAND TOTAL $132,415.00
In 1920 the valuation of County private property for taxation purposes was $72,029,000.00. The levy for county finances was $3 per $1000.00. This with the State Levy, collected along with it, of $1.40 per $1,000 makes a total of $.4.40. The $3.00 is distributed as follows in the various funds:
General $.75
Sinking for hard roads .10 Interests on Bonds for Hard Roads .14
Sinking for Bridges .675
Interest " .5
High School General .5
County Roads .5
County Farm Bureau .035
Indigent Fund .3
Total $3.00
4
Funds for all school purposes in the county are drawn from the general funds, the exception being those for high school-general, which has a levy of its own.
The city owns some of the public utilities: Namely, the electric light and power plant and the water system; and also the city cemetery, Prairie Lawn. The gas for heating and lighting is furnished by a local company. There are no street cars and several local companies have service cars and jitneys, also a large bus for service between the stations and hotel.s
The electric light costs 8 cents per kilowat for domestic use with ten per cent discount for payment before the tenth of the month. Water is furnished at 2o Cents per one thousand cubic feet with a minimun rate of 75 cents per month. When an amount over 100,000 gallons is used, the rate is 15 cents per thousand. Gas costs the domestice consumer 58 cents per thousand cubic foot. There is a deposit of $10 required on the meter for domestic use. Rates for lots and burial in the city cemetery are; to persons residing in Wellington, $6.00, block of four lots $45.00; to non-residents,$10.00 and $70.50 per block of four lots; burial permits to residents and non residents, $4.00 for child under eight years; over eight years$8.00; steel or cement vault $8.00, upper ground vault $2.00. The city has recently built a mausoleum which will be available soon.
The service cars and jitneys charge not less than 25 cents per trip, and at the rate of $3.00 per hour if hired that way.
The city has nineteen miles of paved streets. They expect in the near future to complete the paving system and that will make a total of thirty five miles.
The city hall houses the offices of all city officials,city council, offices of the Commercial Club, the County Farm Bureau and the Fire Department. The Police Department looks forward to the time when a city prison and detention home will be available. At present city prisoners are cared for in the county jail, the city paying a per capita daily rate. There is a Carnegie Library, which was built in 1916 situated in the reat end on the corner of the cross street behind the city hall.
INDUSTRIES
Sumner County is known as one of the leading agricultrual counties of Kansas The soil is excellent, the selling price of farm land being from $50 to $200 per acre and of uncultivated land about $40.00. It is said that about ninety per cent of the land is tillable. The county employs a County Farm Agent to promote higher ideals, production, welfare, etc. of the farms of the county. He is conducting for instance a campaign just now for the farmers to own registered sire for hog, sheep and cattle raising. He works with the Extension Department of the State Agricultural College, bringing institutes of all kinds, the latest one having been millinery. Sales of registered stock, etc., are conducted and annual county affairs arranged.
The county is well served by six different railroads, viz; The Atchison,
Topeka and Santa Fe, the Chicago, Rock Island & pacific, the Missouri pacific, The Kansas City, Mexico and Orient and the Kansas Southwestern.
Wellington being the county seat and the largest city in the County, has more industries than any other. There are five flour mills and milling companies, an ice and cold storage company, a broom factory and the water and light department owned by the city; also a laundry. The Santa Fe has shops in Wellington where under normal conditions, an average of 750 men are employed. The flour mills employ 156 men normally, the ice plant 12, the broom factory 2, and the water and light plants 13 men. Figures were not available for the laundry, but it was reported that they employ about twelve or fifteen women for the labor.
-5-
The Sante Fe Railroad shops generally have forty per cent unskilled labor Recently they have laid off about thirty-five per cent of their employees of the unskilled and semi-skilled types, mainly. They have also cut the wage for unskilled labor to 30 cents per hour, so that a week's wage would be $14.40. This affects the Mexicans in the City more than any other class of individuals. Most of them have been brought here by the railroad and are not permanently located.

The flour mills employ by far, more skilled than unskilled labor. The average monthly wage of all the mills is $133.00. The average wage for the ice plant is $138.00 the broom factory $100.00 and the water and light plant. $108.84.
There are about sixty retail enterprises in Wellington, The Retail Merchants'Association has one hundred members. Wellington has three banks, eighteen groceries, three dry goods stores, two men's furnishings, four shoe stores, five drug stores, three bakeries, three confectionery stores and two book stores, among others. These stores, are reported to pay to men clerks, salaries from $30 to $35 per week, a few women clerks getting the same. Other women get around $15.00 a few stores such as the 5 cents and 10 cents stores paying only$6 during the apprentice period.
The state minimum wage has been placed at $11 for women; a nine hour day is prescribed by law, also provision for the Welfare and comfort of women, such as rest rooms with separate toilets, chairs or stools in the store, etc. Inspectors far the State Department of Labor, Women's Bureau are supposed to see that those laws are enforced. The inspector has not called in Wellington for some time, probably because no industry employs women in great numbers here. The women clerks are the main ones to be protected by this law in Wellington. In this connection it is of interest to know that according to a recently completed state survey by the Women's Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor in Kansas, move than half of the women in industries in the State receive less than, a living wage. They state that nearly one-fifth of the four Thousand women studied are paid less than $9 a week and over one half receives less th than $12 and over $9.00. They consider Kansas very backward in rating $11 as a minimum wage when other states nearby make $13 and $15 and even $18 a minimun wage.
Most packing is given as best paid industry and the 5 cents and 10 cents stores clerks as the lowest paid employes, over 97% of these employees receiving less than $12 per week. Thirty-one cities were covered in this study. Wichita being the closest one to Wellington
There are several co-operative enterprises in Wellington and Sumner County,
The Sumner County Farmers' Union and Co-Operative Association being one and the Wellington Mercantile and Manufacturing Co-Operative Association another. The former has a capital stock of $90,000.00 and employs twenty-four men in its mill with a monthly pay roll of $1900.00. The authorized capital stock of the latter association is $25,000.00 divided into twenty-five hundred shares of $10 each. The Sumner County Fanners' Union and Co-Operative Association has its headquarters in Wellington, This Association has eight elevators in the county, three genereal stores and two implement scores besides its mill in Wellington. A stock membership of 930 for the county is claimed.
The president of the Wellington Mercantile Association is also president of a state association which has a chain of about thirty-eight stores in the state. The organization of the co-operative societies and of the various labor unions was fostere and established by the same official. There are eighteen local unions in Wellington that present with a membership of about twelve hundred.
GENERAL PUBLIC WELFARE .
Since the local organization of the Red Cross had been thinking, for some time of undertaking to do some work for the community along Welfare lines, which would involve the expenditure of some of the funds available, it was natural that the officers had been looking for the most troublesome and least provided for problems to the com-munity.
-5-
The Sante Fe Railroad shops generally have forty per cent unskilled labor Recently they have laid off about thirty-five per cent of their employees of the unskilled and semi-skilled types, mainly. They have also cut the wage for unskilled labor to 30 cents per hour, so that a week's wage would be $14.40. This affects the Mexicans in the City more than any other class of individuals. Most of them have been brought hare by the railroad and are not permanently located.
The flour mills employ by far, more skilled than unskilled labor. The average monthly wage of all the mills is $133.00. The average wage for the ice plant is $138.00, the broom factory $100.00 and the water and light plant. $108.84.
There are about sixty retail enterprises in Wellington, The Retail Merchants'Association has one hundred members. Wellington has three banks, eighteen groceries, three dry goods stores, two men's furnishings, four shoe stores, five drug stores, three bakeries, three confectionery stores and two book stores, among others. Thess stores, are reported to pay to men clerks, salaries from $30 to $35 per week, a few women clerks getting the same. Other women get around $15.00 a few stores such as the 5 cents and 10 cents stores paying only $6 during the apprentice period.
The state minimum wage has been placed at $11 for women; a nine hour day is prescirbed by law, also privision for the Welfare and comfort of women, such as rest rooms with separate toilets, chairs or stools in the store, etc. Inspectors for the State Department of Labor, Women's Bureau are supposed to see that those laws are enforced. The inspector has not called in Wellington for some time, probably because no industry employs women in great numbers here. The women clerks are the main ones to be protected by this law in Wellington. In this connection it is of interest to know that according to a recently completed state survey by the Women's Bureau of the U. S. Department of Labor in Kansas, move than half of the women in industries in the State receive less than a living wage. They state that nearly one-fifth of the four Thousand women studied are paid less than $9 a week and over one half receives less th than $12 and over $9.00. They consider Kansas very backward in rating $11 as a minimum wage when other states nearby make $13 and $15 and even $18 a minimum wage.

Most packing is given as best paid industry and the 5 cent and 10 cent stores clerks as the lowest paid employes, over 97% of these employees receiving less than $12 per week. Thirty-one cities were covered in this study. Wichita being the closest one to Wellington
There are several co-operative enterprises in Wellington and Sumner County,
The Sumner County Farmers' Union and Co-Operative Association being one and the Wellington Mercantile and Manufacturing Co-Operative Association another. The former has a capital stock of $90,000.00 and employs twenty-four men in its mill with a monthly pay roll of $1900.00. The authorized capital stock of the latter association is $25,000.00 divided into twenty-five hundred shares of $10 each. The Sumner County Fanners' Union and Co-Operative Association has its headquarters in Wellington, This Association has eight elevators in the county, three genereal stores and two implement stores besides its mill in Wellington. A stock membership of 930 for the county is claimed.

The president of the Wellington Mercantile Association is also president of a state association which has a chain of about thirty-eight stores in the state. The organization of the co-operative societies and of the various labor unions was fostere and established by the same official. There are eighteen local unions in Wellington that present with a membership of about twelve hundred.
GENERAL PUBLIC WELFARE .
Since the local organization of the Red Cross had been thinking, for some time of undertaking to do some work for the community along Welfare lines, which would involve the expenditure of some of the funds available, it was natural that the officers had been looking for the most trouble some and least provided for problems to the com-munity.
-6-

Some problems that had been forced to meet and deal with as best they could, realizing that they were not properly equipped to do the work but doing it because there seemed literally to be no one to whom to turn over the cases. Other conditions, they observed, and found that the county nor city had, up to this time made any particular provision for bettering. There seemed, also, to be great difficulty in having laws and ordinances in certain health matters, enforced; matter upon which there exists general lack of knowledge. The needy families were being cared for, physically, by having them given good food, clothing, free medical care; but especially among some of those who were afflicted with a chronic illness such as tuberculosis, nothing was being done in an organized way to prevent the whole household from being infected. As a consequence it was noticed that there were coming to be more and more and more cases in the family group which had one or two tubercular members. Some of then inter-married and other problems besides sickness developed.
Everyone dealing with these problems reported that gret difficulty existed in accomplishing anything. Some workers were coming to believe that the only possible thing to do for the families and individuals who came to their attention was to pro vide for their creature wants in the present and trust to luck or providence to better conditions if possible.
Although the amount of sickness and misery, want and delinquency was not of alarming or undue proportion for the size of the town and county, considering the lack of provision for preventing those problems, especially sickness such as tuberculosis, yet in order to keep up with the standards Wellington had set for herself along certain defined lines of public welfare, it seemed that the time had come to decide on spending whatever funds were available to promote some constructive work along these lines,
mentioned above.
In order to more intelligently decide on whit definite undertakings would be most needed and feasible at this time, them, this community study was undertaken with the idea of determining how serious and extensive the problems were and what was being done already to meet them. Since a large part of the information, necessarily, had to be obtained from the agencies, individuals and offices, who were performing some work in these fields, this report will largely describe thier work, scope of endeavor, etc., and at the same time an attempt will be made to show what gaps there exist in provision for dealing with the problems, If several months' time had been availabe for making the study it would have been possible to have made a much more thorough canvass of the actual conditions involving house to house visits in all probability Since the time was necessarily limited it was necessary to depend upon the above described methods for getting information.

GENERAL WELFARE ORGANIZATION
This study was mainly concerned, as stated before, with certain defined problems, namely, Poverty, Recreation, Juvenile Delinquency, Sickness, especially Tuberculosis and Venereal Diseases, but in attempting to gain some idea of the condition and the available resources for bettering the community in anyway at all, it was necessary to take into consideration certain organizations and agencies for public
welfare which for the purpose of convenience will be discussed under this heading, cause though they each deal with certain specific aspects of publci welfare, yet do not necessarily limit themselves to what their neame indicate in their purpose.
Some of them have been mentioned above as dealing with some phase of the industries or employers in the community.
-7-
Wellington Commercial Club
This club is functioning at present in the same manner that organizations in other cities operated and which are known variously as Chamber of Commerc, Boards of Commerce, etc. The club has existed for a number of years and has recently added to this strength financially by admitting to membership many individuals besides the merchants, shop owners, factory, etc. The basic membership fee is $6.00 per year.
Other memberships are $15.00, $25.00 and some as high as $150.00 per year. They
have been instrumental in promoting many programs and drives that have benefitted and are still benefiting the general public. Their most recent undertaking has been the promotion of the Better Home Foundation. A better home expert was brought here through their efforts, who gave a series of lectures an this subject. The better Home Foundation was organized then, and the plans for a Golden Jubilee to celebrate Wellington’s fiftieth anniversary were initiated. In order finance the jubilee which is planned for this October, a "committee of 30” was organized with the secretary of the Commercial Club as chairman, This committee of thirty business men of the city was made responsible for raising a fund of $25,000 in order to make the jubilee a really big thing of its kind. The campaign for subscription spread over some time, with a recess in the period, and the last part of the drive was completed the last half of the time spent in making this study. As this report is being written it is announced that $20,000 of the fund has been subscribed and that the rest is expected in a few days.
While few of the plans for the Jubilee are made public at this time, it is certain that they will plan to center all the big events of the Fall of the year around it. For instance, it is thought that the annual fair will be held about the same time.
Women’s Service Club
Last fall a group of interested women in the city met and outlined plans for organizing a civic improvement club. They elected officers and appointed a committee to draw up a constitution and by laws for the organization; also to suggest a name for it. During the time this study was being made their club organization was completed at a meeting to which about fifty prospective members had been invited.
The constitution was adopted and the name of "Women’s Service Club” decided on.
The constitution was stated as the purpose of the Club following;
(1) To encourage the ideal of service as a basis of all worthy enterprises.
(2) To encourage active interest of every woman, in the civic, social and Moral welfare of her community.
(3) To encourage a spirit of friendliness as the best means
of promoting community interests.
Several standing committees were created also; Membership, Publicity, Home Beautifying, Recreation, Social and Park. The dues per year are $1.00 and it is the plan to secure about 300 members among the most enlightened women in the city. The constitution states that no discussion or manifestation of any interests politically will be considered legitimate business of the club.
Welfare Board.
This board was appointed by the city in accordance with a recently enacted ordinance creating the department of welfare. Some of those interested in promoting this enactment had hoped to see one passed that would have a little more general power; also a little more direct authority than is vested in those board members, as it is, the board is instructed to interest itself in commercial recreation, censoring moving picture shows, vaudeville shows, street carnivals, etc., that are brought to Wellington, There are five members of the board and they are member in the five leading churches of the city.
—8—
CHURCHES.
There are in Wellington, eleven churches which are said to have total membership of about 3,000. Besides these there are two small colored churches with small memberships. The strongest denomination is probably the Methodist Episcopal.
Not naming them in order of size the others are as follows: Baptist, Presbyterian,
First Christian, East Side Christian, Church of Christ, Congregational, Lutheran, Christian science. Roman Catholic and Seventh Day Adventists.
A year ago last winter(1920-2l) there was a union church revival conducted On a very large scale. A large tabernacle was built which would accomodate about 3,000 and an evangelist was brought here to conduct the meetings. It is difficult to measure the results of such an undertaking in figures or dollars and cents, but undoubtedly some very beneficial results came about. Attendance was excellent at all meetings. The building was erected on ground owned by the city and has been left standing for use as an auditorium. A basketball court was constructed and has been in constant use by the school teams, a city team and others. Part of the displays at the last fair were in this building - that, however, was before one large wing was removed.
There is a ministerial alliance which meets regularly. Several years ago the alliance organized the Board of Associated Charities, made up of two women representative from each church in the alliance. The work of this organization is discussed under the heading "Family Welfare". The ministerial alliance has been a promoting agency for many undertakings along public welfare lines, They work so quietly that the general public knows little of what they are actually doing: perhaps that is one secret of their power.
City Public Schools
The schools are supported from a levy of tax, that is taken in with the county general Fund, and from which the county schools also draw their support. There are five ward schools and one high school which was until recently the county high school but is now under the supervision of the city school board and superintendent of schools. One of the ward schools has also the junior high school work -that is, the 7th and 8th grades.
There are too classes held in the city library basement - the first and second grades which were displaced when the junior high school work was centralized in the 3d ward school.
The last school census showed a total of 2200 scholastics, This takes in those from 6 to 21 years of age. to date their total enrollment has been 1700, some having withdrawn and others come in since the beginning of the school year.
This study was not intended as a detailed analysis of education, but these few facts were considered to be of interest in considering the city as a whole.
The school buildings are all substantially built of stone or brick, the newer ones being of brick and perhaps more conveniently arranged. They have the stationery, desks, Blackboards, etc., of all first class schools. Some musical instrument, if only a victrola, is found in all; one has a moving picture The schools all could use
more space, the high school especially, there being about 300 enrolled there. The high school is a first class one. The business course, i.o., shorthand, typewriting, and bookeeping, are especially popular, and the classes consequently are crowded. Domes-Science and Manual Training are given in the high schools.
The school board employs a coach for athletics and all of the schools have their school teams, teams for girls and for the different classes. Basket ball has been popular and all of the the schools have at least one outside basketball court. A system of tournaments for both the boys' and girls' teams has been carried out recently, the students having bought tickets for the series for 50 cents: general admission 25 cents. The
RECREATION
-9-
money raised being used for equipment and clothing for the teams.
The school playgrounds and the summer recreational work of the schools are discussed under the heading "Recreation."
There is no Parent-Teachers Association at present. One was organized several years ago but it did not function satisfactorily, it was reported, and so was discontinued. These organizations elsewhere under this name or that of School Im-Provement Association, have been functioning very well to better conditions in the schools secure additional needed equipment and bring needs before the eyes of the general public.
Other Organizations.
Besides the above discussed organizations which are more or less specifically organised for some welfare or closely allied purpose, there are a number of lodges, cLubs societies, etc., existing in Wellington, which, while they do a certain amount of relief giving in connection with their own members' distress, do not undertake on a large enough scale to warrant separate discussion here. For reference and as a matter of interest, showing the number of these organizations, they are included in a list of agencies and organizations in the supplement to this report.
Wellington has adopted a fore-sighted and comprehensive plan for carring for the city's share of recreation for its citizens and their children. Comparing her efforts and the results with those in other cities her size, elsewhere, it is realized that Wellington has advanced farther than the aver -ge, and is well advanced on what recreation
specialistists call a City Plan for recreation. The achievements so far show that undoubtedly groups and individuals unusually interested and capable of carrying out ideals along these lines have been holding a goal up before themselves and the public for a long time
Recreation of a wholesome type, properly supervised, well chosen for serving the purposes desirable, that is developing the participants physically, mentally and Morally, has come to be recognised as one of the foremost needs which a city or community should legitimately provide for. Before our country developed towns and cities of the size we have now, recreation, not always thought of as such, to be sure, ms possible in very adequate quantity and quality in the home where a complete group existed in a more or less stable condition, or within the confines of a very small community. Many small units, consisting of one family group or village group, more or less self sufficient economically, as was necessary before specialized labor and manufacturing developed in
the country, were able, among their own members to secure recreation also, as much as was necessary. Anyone who has interested himself in American Family life at any time in t the last fifty year, knows that, as industrialism has developed - that is, the large, highly specialised manufacturing plants in our country, country as they grew in power, developed communities into towns and cities, groat centers of population being gathered about the places where industry naturally best developed, or found a most natural market for its products, so has the unity of the family group been disintegrating over to whole period. Where the family formerly was a complete economic grouping, now it is found to be very insufficient unto itself, most of its nature members finding it neccessary to leave the toto by day to earn, by helping produce some special product, enough to purchose in the markets the products of other workers like himself, who in turn purchase his as the need for it arises. The family group produces nothing and each member must contribute something financially so that is needs may be provided for from the markets where all commodities are sold.
-10-
It is easy to understand why, since the members of the once unified family froup have been drawn away from the home to spend most of their waking hours, they have sought recreation also, outside of the home. Because of the monotonous character of his particular job in the great mechanism during the long day, the worker’s mind and physique are fatigued so that his recreation, which he needs just as badly, and in fact worse than when he was performing tasks which varied every hour, must take some form which will stimulate the powers which have lain dormant throught the day. He seeks, because of his physical or mental fatigue a recreation that will furnish either a very powerful stimulus, because of his natural lethargy, or one that will require no effort on his part, no-re-action requiring use of mental or physical powers. To fill these needs and desires certain forms of commercial recreation first developed, as was natural. Then, because of the inevitable malicious practices, resulting, and the harmful effects on the young, especially, of indulging in these activities too freely, first certain welfare organizations and later cities and communities themselves took though and saw that the needed recreation was made available and that this was of so attractive and satisfying nature, that large numbers of the young were drawn in and given in spite of themselves, recreation that really benefited them in every way.
City Parks and Other Publicly Provided Facilities.
To counteract commercial recreation, then, and to provide it in forms not possible to be obtained in the home of today, Wellington has developed as a city project, two parks. These are under a city park commissioner who has $3500 per year appropriated for use in improving and supervising the facilities and their use by the public.
Community Park, located about two squares off the main street dividing the city from north to south, on the main street dividing it from east to west, is very well located, it seems, to serve the most people possible. There is a large stone park house, a remodeled building which the gas company formerly used and which for many years was an eyesore. This building is well planned to care for group meetings, entertainments,
parties, etc., and is available free of charge, to any group applying, provided the rules are complied with. There is a large room the width at the building, equipped comfortably for meetings and entertainments, another room where banquet tables may be placed, a large well equipped kitchen, a rest room and cloak room, and a small room which is used as an office by the park commissioner when necessary. The park commissioner receives no salary and does not devote full time to the work of her office at present. Groups of older people use this house as much or more than the children. From observation during the time this study was made, the popularity and constant use of the house by various groups more than warrants any expenditures in the past, for its equipment and also any contemplated by the commissioner in the future.

There is an athletic field and grand-stand in the park, the latter not very old, comparatively, and though it was not the season for outdoor sports, groups of ball players were observed various times on the field. There is a band stand built very substantially of the same rock the park house in constructed with. It sets up high enough to admit a soda fountain equipment to be placed below the stand proper. This was of course closed up in February and March, but is operated when the season opens. The hut by the Red Cross Canteen Service is placed in this park also. Closed up now, it can be used during the season or at times of special attractions for selling lunches, etc. There are some slides owned by the park, but these were at the time of this study stored away for the winter.
This is all the present equipment. There are no seats out in the ground at
present and the place is well lighted at night in order to prevent the use of the park by undesirable persons. The plan is to soon purchase other equipment such as swings sand piles, and the usual things in the near future. Even if no equipment besides what is there at present is added this summer, it would be possible to conduct some organized and supervised recreation. The school board has been interested enought to provide
-11-
a man supervisor for recreation for the summer months for boys especially, through the girls would participate in the gardens club activities. It seems as if a very well-rounded and complete plan for sumner recreation for both boys and girls could be worked out under the auspices of the schools, if another worker were employed to supplement the work of the person already employed. The school buildings and playgrounds could be used as well as Community Park for activities, and if sucessful it might be found possible to conduct a play festival on a small scale, as other cities do, in the fall using the games learned in the summer, displaying the hand made articles and perhaps the gardne products. This, if conducted at the time of the Golden Jubilee would be very interesting.
The other park owned by the city is known as Washington Park, and at present consists of a nine hole golf link. It lies to the west of the city and has many of the beauty spots of the community in it. Slate Creek winds around in it, adding beauty and with the dam nearby, making it possible for amny to enjoy the world old sport of fishing. There is an effort from time to time to restock the place with fish in order that there may be supply for all who care to try their luck and skill. An adequate roadway is one of the present goals for the park; although it is fairly served now by a drive in the center and winding around a loop.
The expenses of keeping up the course are born by the Gold Club, those of the citizens who can and will, contributing according to their ability to the finances. The use of the course is free to all whether members of the club or not, but those who are able are expected to belong to the club. A golf professor gives instructions to anyone desiring to be taught the game, which is of such a nautre that skilled in-struction is necessary to most novices. The park is within waling distance of the persons living in town, but most of the adults going out either drive their own cars or hire a jitney. The commissioner and others who are interested in developing the possibilities of the park, look forward to the time when they will have an open air swimming pool there.
Though Wellington is the county seat, there is no public auditorium at the present time. Realizing the need for one and at the same time desiring to build a memorial of some kind to the men of the city who were killed in the great war, bonds were voted a couple of years ago to build a memorial recreation hall and auditorium on the grounds to the north of the city hall, owned by the city. Because of high prices of building material and costs of erecting, the building of it has been postponed; it has been announced recently that bids for the building will be asked for in a few weeks. Though only $130,000 is on hand to use, it is hoped prices will drop in the near future that the amount will be sufficient. The director of the Kansas State university Athletics, suggested utilizing the building for the city's and the school's athletics. He suggested that a basket-ball court be laid out on the arena floor and that this floor can also be used for indoor ball, also that dressing rooms on the sides of the stage be put below and that these spaces be used for handball.
He also suggested a basket ball practise court on the stage, With these provision he says the building would be used from 8:00 A.M to 9:00 p.M.
At present the old tabernacle building on the northwest comer of the square owned by the city, is being used for basket ball by the schools, American Legion aid City Baer-Cat teams. A basket ball court was placed in the center of the building,a leaving the stage intact. It has been in constant use very much since it was available about a
12-
year ago. Meetings, entertainements, etc., are possible in the building also, and part of the annual fair exhibits were displayed hero last fall. Though the building is home-ly, tar-paper covered, unpointed and without a floor except the basket ball court, it has been lost popular, showing what a definite need is met by such a place.
Another provision by the city for recreation along with education, is the city Carnegie Library. The Carnegie Library was build in 1916 and is govened by a board. The city appropriated $3,500.00 for Library expenses for the year 1920.
Many new volumes have been purchased and especial effort has been made to build up the classed group of volumes which has been neglected in the past. 'They have at present 5685 volumes. Two of the basement rooms are used for first and second grades by the city school department, because of crowded conditions in the schools. No organized attempt has been made to introduce a story hour there as yet, but a rather short-lived effort made about a year ago was successful, considering that no advertising accompanied it.
The city also appropriates a fund for a band, this having been $1,200.00 for the current year. The concerts by the band are more numberous during the summer months, naturally. A fine band stand is built in Community Park and a portable one is at present on the vacant ground just north of the City Hall.
The recreational plans for the summer of the schools, have been mentioned above in oonnection with the discussion of the parks. This work has been carried on before on a smaller scale than in planned for it this summer. Last summer the athletic ooach had it in charge.
It was reported that about sixty boys and thirty girls last summer took advantage regularly of the supervised activities. For the toys there were early morning basket ball games, hikes, fishing, swimming Slate Creek, Gardens etc. The girls also had basket-ball, hikes, etc. This year, by getting plans under way a little earlier, not only for the garden clubs at the various schools, but also the other activity, it is hoped that more children will be reached. If plans contemplated at present are carried out, there will be some industrial work such as hand craft, besides the garden and athletic activities. a supervisor will devote full time to this work and while the girls will take part in some of it, it is supposed that most of the supervisor's time will be given to boys. It is to be hoped that some means will be provided so that at least apart time woman supervisor for the girls will be employed to co-operate with the man supervisor. The school board at its last meeting discussed This possibility and it was suggested that perhaps the board, together with one or two other contributions from the Red Cross and City, for instance might be able to finance this additional feature.
COmERCIAL. RECREaTION
Commercial Recreation does not have a great variety of forms in Wellington at present . There are the two main attractions of course, moving pictures shows and pool halls. 0there forms are not offered continously. There is a privately owned and operated swimming pool, vaudeville is brought about every two weeks to one
-13-
of the two moving picture houses, public dances are given almost every week at the W. O. W. Hall and except for occasional entertainments at the schools or churches, this is all.
The city ordinances do not contain privision fo licensing and controlling very many forms of commercial recreation. Pool halls are perhaps most closely subjected supervision and control through licenses. There are three of of these in the city, and they are required to pay, quarterly a fee of $5.00 per table; they shall not be operated in connection with a restaurant or confectionery; They must close
from 11:30 P.M. to 6:00 A. M. and Sundays. No minors may be permitted to play
or remain in the hall to look on, or be employed in these halls. Licenses may be revoked by the Mayor or Commissioners, and violations are classes as "Offesnses", the maximum fine being $50.00. This was effective April 1, 1918. No complaints according to police authorities have been received recently. About a year ago a license was revoked because of the proprietor allowing gambling, drinking, etc.,
in his hall. Observation of the halls at various times seemed to indicate fairly good conditions, they are all well patronized and have at least four or five tables each.
The city also requires a license for tent shows, etc., of $50.00 that must be erected in or just outside the city limits. If very large, the show must be stationed outside the city, because of of spaed within. This fee covers expenses of policing, inspecting etc., that the city must furnish. These shows are not very numerous in Wellington in any season. One brought within the year was reported to be rather undesirable and was encouraged to move on before their stay was out. It isn't that the show itself is bad, but a very undesirable class of fellows come along - especially women, Wellington, it is said, does not very well patronize these shows when they do come.
Comparatively recently an ordinance was passed creating a welfare Board to
be appointed by the Council. When drafted by interested citizens, the ordinance was a little more far-reading in authority, but the Council saw fit to curtail the powers of the Board to be appointed, so that much of the intended purpose was defeated, it was felt, by many. This board is called upon to supervise recreation, especially moving picture shows, censoring them as it becomes necessary. It is feared by most, that their duties are so indefinitely defined and their authority so poortly backed up that much of the purpose may not be carried out.
There are operating at present, two moving picture shows, across the Street from each other and within one-half block of the intersection of the two main streets. One shows as a rule, the more sensational type of films, including one or two serials of the Wester blood and thunder type, or the murder robbery-mystery type. This house also bring a vaudeville show about every two weeks. Nessarily these must be of very third rate class. or they would not show in such a small theatre. Recently a special film was brought there by the American Legion which was of a very good type. Another recent showing, however, was of special film very luridly and sensationally advertised by posters, which depicted scenes and characters dressed in a much more frank and revealing way than were shown in the film itself. Everywhere city welfare boards and authorities are having to censor posters and advertisements fully as much if not more than the show themselves.
-14-
This particular show was of a type with a very crude emotional appeal. Moreover, all but five or six persons acting in it were negroes, Hawaiian group of singers and players accompanied the film and were probably negroes also.
There is no great objection to negroes as entertainers on general principles, but the objection arises to the prevailing crudity and abandon or emotion dis-played by them in films seen. Dancing for instance, specially of the Hawiian type, is apt to be very sensuous and in short, the whole moral tone of the entertainment of a lower degree than in the case of white actors. Until we can educate the negroes to the finer sensibilities and bring out morality as an inherent characteristic more generally, actors of that race should not be permitted to perform before the general public. Of course, exceptions exist to these statements, but they all apply to the particular show discussed here.
Attendance at this theatre is generally very good. It s capacity is about 200 it is judged. Ventilation is fair and it was fairly clean when visited three or four times during the month this study was made.
The other moving picture house caters to a higher class patronage. It is newer, 1arger and better in every way than the one discussed above. Though not always able to show the first class films such as paramount, Famous Players, Griffith, etc., yet the general type is fairly good as opposed to the very sensational type, at least. This theatre accommodates about 300 it is probable, has a full orchestra, is well ventilated and well cared for. The ad-mission price is twice that of the other theatre.
There will soon be opened a new theatre of first class, showing moving picture films and plays occasionally. It is said that this theatre will equal any in this part of the county.
Dancing as a form of recreation, is not held in every high favor in Wellington. A dancing club was disorganised for reason of unpopularity about a year ago. At present dances are being given in the W. 0. W. Hall by a group of musicians one or twice a week. These are not very popular generally, though they have a limited patronage.
The W. 0. W. hall also occasionally houses a prize fight. Two were book ed in the month this study was made. The fighters are generally third raters, it is reported. The attendance is fairly good at these fights.

OTHER RECREATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS

The American Legion has stressed, so far the recreational aspect of their program. They have been devoting all efforts for some time towards getting a fund to rent and equip some club rooms. Just recently have they been able to furnish purchases, equipment such as pool tables, etc., for their rooms. They have their athletic teams, basket ball being the only one active at present. The basket Ball Team was able to defeat the city team and the high school team also in the recent tournament, with the splendid space for their rooms that they have and the good financial conditions of the blub* the members should, it sees, develop some of the other phases of their national program in the near future. Politically,
while not acting directly, the strength of this organization has been felt elsewhere in fighting for welfare measures.
-15-
There are city athletic teams which are as a rule, self sustaining,
Basket Ball is the only sport engaged in during the winter and early spring. The basket ball team is called by the name "Bear-Cats". Defeated by the Legion Team it also failed to qualify for the final game of the tournament for the county championship, which was played in the tabernacle recently. Lack of time practice handicaps the players, as they are nearly all in business.
Women's Service Club has a committee on recreation. Its functions are very general and any undertaking to further the best interests of public and private recreation, may be engaged in legitimately. It may act as an auxiliary to the park commissioner, besides fostering movements for additional provisions by the city, or private enterprizes.
Entertainers at the schools, either moving picture films brought purely for entertainment, or little plays: church organization entertainments, etc., form an important part of available recreation of the right sort. The third Ward School has its own moving picture machine and so is independent about planning for exhibitions. Certain organizations among the young, foster wholesome forms of recreation. They are: The Boy scouts, Girls Scouts, Hi-y Girl Reserves, etc., Recreation is used by their leaders to develop the physicial, mental and moral sides of the members, the proper function, really of recreation.
There are in addition to the above discussed organizations several social clubs and societies much as the Pastime, Five Hundred, Cary Circle, Prentis, Treble Clef, Wednesday afternoon, Blue Monday, Social Embroidery, Nevelle.
Kilkere, parliamentary, South End Bridge, Shufflers, Anon, etc. Many of these undertake regularly more of less welfare work, the Cary Circle, especially, being interested in promoting recreational provisions.
Most of the lodges also have a certain amount of recreation, but this is incidental to their other work and generally for members only. Lodges are listed in the supplement.

ACTIVITIES OF SCHOOL CHILDREN OF 4th, 5th & 6th Grades.

In order to secure some definite figures on types of recreational activities among children, the co-operation of the school authorities was secured in having the children of the 4th, 5th, and 6th grades write themes or essays on "What I did during the Week-End." These themes, 367 in number were read carefully and the activities mentioned tabulated in such a way that when all were done, the number reporting each activity was shown by sex. From these figures a few tables were made, showing the percents and also classifying the activities in several ways to bring out certain interesting and significant conditions:
TABLE I

Activities with Total reporting on each, by sex.
Activity Total percent of 367 Boys Girls
Errands or chores Sunday School or Church Visiting or having visiting Reading or library 274 269 167 136 741 727 455 370 129 125 57 54 145 144 108 82
Activity Tota1 Percent of 367 BOYS Girls
Playing 132 .362 64 68
To town or shopping 102 277 41 61
Moving picture shows 93 253 53 40
In woods, Picnics,
Trips, outings 89 243 56 33
Garden Making 85 232 50 35
Ball or Catch 82 223 55 27
Auto Riding 73 199 20 53
Games (*) 65 177 8 19
Witnessing
Basket-Ba11 Games 64 174 31 33
Bakst Ball 62 169 39 23
Playing Musical
Instruments 49 134 9 40
Hunting or fishing 40 109 36 4
Manual Training or
Making Bird Houses, 39 106 32 7
Walking, hiking,
Taking Pictures 38 0104 13 25
Playgrounds or Parks 37 0100 18 19
Jacks 35 0954 2 33
Pets 35 0954 2 33
Entertainments 33 0899 11 22
Making candy or
Popping corn 33 0899 14 19
Dolls, Lady, House,
Store, etc. 33 0899 1 32
Studying 32 0872 13 19
Working away from
home. 23 0627 21 2
Observing Bird, wild
animals, etc. 20 0545 14 6
Cards 19 0518 14 5
Practising for
entertainment 18 0490 8 10
Hide & Go seek 17 0463 8 9
Basebal1 16 0438 13 3
Bicycle Riding 16 0438 12 4
Roller Skating 14 0381 7 7
Horseshoe or Quoits 11 0300 11
Marbles, Tops, Kites 10 0367 10
Class meeting or
parties 10 0367 4 6
paper Route 9 0245 9 --
Golf 8 0215 8 --
Table Games 7 0191 3 4
Football 7 0191 6 1
Anetover (Andy-Over?) 7 0191 6 1

Table 1 (contd.) -16-
Table 1 (Contd)
Activity Total Percent of 367 Boys Girls
Swinging 6 .0163 1 5
Horseback riding 6 0163 5 1
Stick 6 0163 6 0
Sewing Knitting, Crocheting 5 0136 - 5
Black man 5 0136 5 0
Cowboy & Indian 5 0136 5 0
Beckon 4 0109 1 3
Nigger Shooter 3 0082 3 -- •
Robber 3 0082 3 --
Croquet 3 0082 2 1
(*) Includes 38 reporting games named only once or twice or three time.
Table No.l shows the activities named in the order of the greatest number first, with the percent of the total, and divided as to sex. It will be noticed that not until the 5th place is shown an activity that we usually think of as peculiar to child-life. Under this heading were tabulated all those instances where the child said "I played", etc., not mentioning the game or sport that was engaged in. Considering the table as a whole, and noticing particularly the character of the activities that the children engage in in their homes, such as "Visiting or having Visitors", "reading", etc., it is easy to understand why parents find it necessary to give all their children chores and errands to perform, in many instances just to keep them occupied. The table as a whole shows a very great lack of knowledge and participation in organized play. A number of games are mentioned, but the largest number report passive recreation or non-recreational activities. The season of the year probably had a great effect on the number going to the parks and play grounds. It is felt that many children stopped and played on the school playgrounds who did not report it, for some reason or other perhaps because they think of the play there in connection with school work or school and so take it rather in a matter-of-fact way. Judging from the number of children observed in the school playgrounds after school hours and on Saturday, many use them.
It is gratifying to see the number of those reporting going to the Library or as having spent some tine reading a book as large as it is. This indicates that the Library is well advertised and is able to furnish them what they most need and want. Judging from the figures on this activity in comparison with those cm other publicly furnished recreation, the library is serving the most. Again the season of the year may have influenced this, although all during the early part of March and on the particular week-end the children wrote of, the weather was very warm and sunny. This popularity of the Library alone might warrant planning for a story-hour in the near future.
There are in all, 51 activities shown in the table, These are not all of the actvities named, for in the case of games named only once, twice or three time in many instances, the number reporting has been included in with "Games".
Tennis, Running aces, Tag, Jumping Rope, Wagon Coasting, Bear, Keep off the Porch, Brakeman, Blind Man's Buff, New York & Boston Flowers, Lose your Supper
"18"
Ribbon, Going to Boston, German Ball, Dare-Devil, Restarurant, Hop Scotch, Other Old Witch, Keep Away, Pussy Wants a Corner, Cinders, Long and Short, Soldier, Hide and Thimbel and Punch. There is a great variety but in no case did more than three report on one of these games.
TABLE II
Active Recreation with Total Reporting by Sex
Activity Total Percent of 367 Boys Girls
Reading or Library 136 .370 54 82
Playing 132 .362 64 68
In Woods, Picnics, Outing, Trips 69 .243 56 33
Garden Making 85 .232 50 35
Ball or Catch 82 .223 55 27
Games (*) 65 .177 8 19
Basket Ball 62 .169 39 23
Playing Musical Instrument 49 .134 9 40
Hunting or Pishing Manual Training or Making Bird 40 .109 36 4
House, etc. 39 .106 32 7
Walking, Hiking, Taking Pictures 38 .0104 13 25
Playground or parks 37 0100 18 19
Jacks 35 0954 2 33
Pets 35 0954 2 33
Making candy or popping corn 33 0954 11 22
Dolls, Lady, House, Store, etc 33 0899 14 19
Observing Birds Wild Animals 20 0899 14 6
Cards 19 0545 14 5
Hide & Go Seek 17 0518 8 9
Baseball 16 0463 13 3
Bicycle Rid ng 16 0438 12 4
Roller Skating 14 0381 7 7
Horse Shoe or Quoits 11 0381 11
Marbles, Tops, Kites 10 0300 10 --
Golf 8 0367 8
Table Games 7 0215 3 4
Football 7 0191 6 1
Ante over 7 0191 6 1
Winging 6 0191 1 1
Horseback Riding 6 0163 5 5
Stick 6 0163 5 1
Black Man 5 0163 5 1
Cowboy or Indian 5 0136 5
Beckon 4 0136 1
Nigger Shotter 3 0109 3 3
Robber 3 0082 3
Croquett 3 0082 2 1
Activity Total Passive Recreation with Total reporting by Percent of 367 Boys Girls Sex.
Sunday School or Church 269 •727 125 144
Visiting or Having Visitors 167 455 57 108
To town or Shopping 102 Moving picture Shows 93 Auto Riding 73 277 41 67
253 53 40
199 20 53
Witnessing Bakset Ball Gone 64 174 31 33
Entertainments 33 0899 11 22
Class Meetings or parties 10 0367 4 6
Sewing, Knitting, Crocheting Etc. 5 0136 -- 5
-19-
TABLE III ML
Table III shows the passive forms of recreation, Sunday School and Church while they are not by any means purely recreational, do furnish enjoyment and entertainment to many-Sunday school particularly. These activites, while only 16% of the total 51 reported on, yet have the greatest numbers reporting. So many children reported having gone "to Town Friday afternoon or Saturday or both, without any special thing gone for, that this fact, together with the numbers of children and individuals aimlessly wandering on the main street at these times every week, cause one to decide that "going to Town" is a form of amusement.
One would expect to find more children reporting Moving Picture show attendance. Some those naming this said that they went twice during the week end.
A number named a particular serial movie that they went to see and which is unusually sensational in character, being of the robber- murder-mystery sort.
TABLE - IV
Non-Recreational Activities with Total Reporting by Sex
BOYS Girls
Errands or Choree 274 .741 129 145
Studying 32 0872 13 19
Working away from home 23 0627 21 2
Practicing for an enter-tainment 18 0490 8 10
Paper Route 9 0245 2 --
Some activities could not be classified as recreation and are shown in Table IV. The largest number reported was on Errands or Chores, being 74% of the total.
Those reporting as working away from home spoke of helping people with gardens, helping parents in stores or places of business, caring for neighbors' children, digging dandlions, etc. Child labor is not a problem in Wellington, though this judgment is not and could not be based on these figures above, because of the age of the children included in the study. Observation and information from various individuals in the city, who are in a portion to know led to the conclusion.
The number reporting practicing for an entertainment is explained by the fact
that the week end considered was just one week before Easter and most of them were getting ready to give an entertainment on Easter Sunday.
-20-
Table V
Table no. V shows the number reporting having engaged in what is known as organised play. These games are 15 in number or 29 per cent of the total 51 activities. Later on in the Spring, were such a study as this made, many more would report on these games probably, and this should be taken into consideration in drawing any conclusions from the totals. The ideal condition or balance between the several forms of recreation shows more in these organised games and that ideal should be borne in mind then working out plans for future recreational provisions.
The need for supervision of play and more instruction in organized games is very evident from these figures. While no child in Wellington is badly overworked at home doing chores, yet it is safe to assume that were there offered more opportunities, for supervised and organized play, so many children would not have to be kept busy by parents at chores in carder to keep them out of mischief. It is not meant in furnishing opportunities such as are here argued for, to entirely free the child from household chores; for proper discipline in performing certain tasks in part of every child's training and the child who misses it entirely lacks some thing not to be gained in other way.
Many surprising statements, also very amusing ones were found on the papers themselves. One thing that is rather unusual and which does not show up in the tables, having tabulated with those reporting going to the woods, or on outings, walks, etc., is that numbers of children report having gone to the cemetery to play Saturady or Sunday. Unless accompanied by parents or some older person, this seems a bad practice for children of this age, irresponsible at they are, and moreover the idea or playing in such a place is wrong both for its effect on the children and the lack of respect for those buried there. It would be a different thing entirely if no place were provided for play in open spaces such as the parks, but it seems that this ought to be controlled in some way. The Saturday bath was such an event to many that it was described in detail in many papers; also the idea of cleanliness of teeth, seemingly having been a reseed on some as being very desirable, many told of scrubbing their teeth after meals. On the whole, the impress ion gained from reading the children's themes, is that Wellington Child-life is a happy, care-free thing, no undue amount of poverty or sickness being manifest; or other things which cause misery and suffering among these uncomplaining, dependent ones of the community. Wellington has done much to furnish re-creation of the proper kind for its citizens and it should and will do more for all of them, especially the children.

Activity Total Percent of 367 Boys Girls
Ball or Catch 82 .223 56 27
Games 65 177 8 19
Basket Ball Jacks 62 169 39 23
35 0954 2 33
Hide & Go Seek 17 0462 8 9
Baseball 16 0438 13 3
Horseshoe or Quoits 11 0300 11 -
Golf 8 0215 8 -
Table Games 7 0191 3 4
Football 7 0191 6 1
Ante Over 7 0191 6 1
Stick 6 0163 6 -
Black Man 5 0163 6 -
Beckon 4 0109 1 3
Croquet 3 0082 2 1
RECOMMENDATIONS ON RECREATIONAL SUPERVISION
It is recommended that the Branch, City and School Board each to pay $25.00 per month for two or three months this summer, to pay the salary of a women playground and recreation supervisor who would co-operate with Mr. Va. Dusen who is in charge of this work for the city under the auspices of the schools.
HEALTH
21
HEALTH
General Facts
Elsewhere in this report it has been explained how the Wellington Branch of the Red Cross became interested in the problems that are found along with Tuberculosis and Venereal Diseases. In order to get a better insight into these problems some general health information was gathered at the tine of the study to present here. It was thought that a more definite basis for forming an opinion could be gotten by calling attention at this time to the facts regarding sickness, deaths, births, etc., which every community and state keep record of and use as checks on general health, conditions.
Under a state law every city and rural community divided as to townships, must report facts regarding the number and causes of deaths, number of births, number of the cases of certain diseases to the state Board of Health where monthly reports are compiled on these figures for the State. The city clerk reports those in Wellington and the County Health Officer for the county, all townships, Physicians, etc., giving their reports to him.
Clear accurate reports, especially upon the more insidious communicable diseases are invaluable in planning for preventative measures, because the reports are the only official means of learning the health of amount of sickness in a community. Often the signs of an epidemic are detected by this means and action can be taken before it gets full headway. The State Board of Health Association, formerly known as the Tuberculosis Society and which is known there as the Kansas State Anti-Tuberculosis Association. They have their nurses, and have until recently been sending one of them to Wellington, about every two weeks. Co-operating agencies of the State Board of Health exist elsewhere, in the larger cities generally, whose activities are under national or state supervision. Such a one is the Federal Bureau of Social Hygiene which has representatives in the state whose efforts are devoted to the detection of cases of venereal disease, among women and girls especially, seeing that the individuals are placed under treatment; and the taking of educational steps in the behalf of the community One of their officers visited Wellington some time ago but devoted almost all of his time to investigating hotels and rooming houses suspected of harboring prostitutes. It should be said that his bureau was created during war-time and was primarily meant to safe-guard the cantonment vicinities in order to protect the service men. Though they still do this they serve communities at large, also another cooperating agency with both the state and local boards of health is the Red Cross. In many counties they have employed, with funds from their roll calls, one or two public health nurses. These nurses try to work in the field of greatest need-this being schools some times and some times general health work, Sumner County Chapter of the Red Cross has had a Public Health Nurse for several years. This work will be discussed a little farther on in this report.
The county and city have entrust the Public Health re-sponsibilities which are assumed by them to a county Health Officer and a city Board of Health, consisting of a City Health Officer, the chief of Police and . the City Attorney, Two Hospitals, one private and partly supported by the
HeaIth page 22
City and 19 physicians and Dentists constitute the City's machinery for safe-guarding health and treating sickness. There is a County Medical Society to which most of the practising physicians in the County belong. The school Board has employed a school nurse for several years, several of the physicians served as medical officers during the World War, both oversea and in the States.
One physician is designated by the U. S. Public Health Service as their official examiner for Wellington and vicinity. His work for the U. S. Public Health Service is with Ex-Service men who are claiming disabilities which are due to service in the army or navy. One of the local hospitals is under contract to care for any of these patients who need hospitalization. So that disabled ex-servicemen have no trouble securing free medical care at the expense of the government.

To health experts, physicians and others who are attempting to learn something of conditions in a community, vital statistics - that is, those on the number of births and deaths furnish some significant date on the subject. It is desirable, therefore, to include some tables showing figures on the births and deaths for the city and county. The table showing the births per 1000 of population fro Wellington, Sumner County, and for the State; also the deaths of infants under the first year fro the same three divisions. The general deaths or 100 population are shown with these too as being significant. All figures are shown for 1918, 1919 and 1920 for comparison;
The County Health Officer who furnished these figures considers that the City and County report rather satisfactorily, and that the figures are fairly reliable. Kansas is in the Registration Area of the U.S. which means that 90% or over of the births and deaths of the state are reported.
It will be noted, from the figures shown in the Table I., that the births per 1000 of population for 1920 in Wellington have increased 2.8 per cent over 1918; however, the deaths of infants under one year have increased 40.3 per cent and the deaths of the general population per 1000 increased, although decreasing from 1918 to 1919 due to the influenza epidemic, from 1919,
4.4 per cent.
At first one is encouraged when comparing the births and deaths per 1000 of population, the former numbering for Wellington, 5.2 more than the latter however the infantile deaths must be considered along with these figures; evidently and an adult in Wellington has 7 times as much chance for life as a baby in its first year.
TABLE I
State: Wellgtn: Co. Ex-State" We;;gtm" Co. Ex: State State
:cept .. Wellgnt:
Wellgtn:
BIRTHS PER 1000 POPULATION: 25 25.4 22.9 22.2 19.4 21.1 22.2 23.7 22.9
: infant deaths in FIRST YEAR PER 1000 BlRTHS 139.0 47.4 100.0 45.5 56.5 98.7 69.2 78.5

DEATHS PER 1000 population 19.8 9.3 11.5 15.4 7.9 10.9 22.9 12.1 15.2
"Health" Page 23
It is reported that the ratio between Wellington, County and State figures or deaths and births is about the same in other towns in Kansas, of the same size. This fact, however, should not make a locality take less thought or act less to decrease this large figures. On the other hand it should spur the citizens on to greater endeavor, since conditions causing such figures are so general in the State. This will encourage and support the State Board of Health in its efforts to have legislation passed insuring greater protection to the general population in health matters and especially to the expectant mothers and the new born babes unfortunate enough to be born in such communities.
The State Board of Health has recently completed a child we-fare study which it took about a year to do. Wellington and Sumner County did not participate in the study for some reason or other, however it might be suggested that it would be well to secure several copies from the Board and read them carefully for suggestion as to action to take.
The Records of the City Clerk who acts as register for vital statistics were gone over at the time this study was made and some facts of great interest in connection with the figures above given were compiled.
It was found that in the calender year 1920 there were 17 infants reported still-born or so imperfectly developed at birth that they lived only a very short time. The 17 were distributed as follows:
3- Still-born
4- Premature Births 1-Insufficient Vitality 9-Imperfectly devloped-death
due to this.
There were 11 males and 6 females,
When one considers that physicians and nurses say that such deaths and that still-births and premature births are generally due to ignorance on the part of the parents in such things as the harmful results in married life of sexual excesses before marriage, causing many times infection with venereal disease; also the proper care of the mother during the period of pregnancy, and the best way to care for infants, it is realized that it is up to someone to take some responsibility in safeguarding life along these lines. Education first, last and always from the kindergartners to the aged will do more than anything else.
Another indication of ignorance as to proper care of the sick in the home and of the danger of laxity in the simple everyday health matters that each individual should be taught is the fact that in the year 1920, 31 deaths were due to pneumonia, it is, as a rule, good nursing that pulls a pneumonia patient through,-that is, if the good nursing is not applied too late. Ability to recognize the first danger signals in a heavy cold, and knowledge of how to properly care for even a cold so as not to risk pneumonia, would prevent many deaths from pneumonia. Many patients die of pneumonia even after taken to the hospital; generally it is because the action of taking the patient to the hospital has come too late after it has advanced too far for the best nursing and medical aid to do anything but relieve this suffering during the last hours. These deaths were distributed as follows: -
Males-Adult 13 Females-Adult 11 Children-7
Health page4 24
An unusual thing bout the ages of these who died was noticed; that was, that the adults were all 24 years or over-and and the children 7 years or under. The adults were grouped as follows: -
3 in their 20's 8 in their 30's 3 in their 40's
3 in their 50's 0 in their 60's
4 in their 70's 2 in their 80's 2 in the 90's
It will be noticed that the largest number occurs in the ages of the ten years from 30 to 40: all except 3 adult deaths occured to persons 30 years or over.
The seven infants dying of pneumonia were all 1 year or under except two which were 7 and 5 years. These figures do not warrant drawing any general conclusions, being for as small territory as they are and also for one year only; but they cause one to wonder if it isn't the helpless and those past their first youthful vigor, grown careless in health matters, who are most likely to be stricken down by pneumonia.
The death rate for Wellington in 1918 from pneumonia, was 38.1 per 1000 of population and in the County outside of Wellington it was 18.2. For 1919 the rate was 20.6 and 11.1.
Hospitals in Wellington
Hatcher Hospital is a private hospital comparatively new. It has 14 private rooms, one men's ward of 3 beds and two women's wards of 2 beds each. Two specialists besides Dr. Hatcher, have their offices in the first floor of the hospital. This hospital holds a free clinic once a month to which persons from outside Wellington are admitted. The Red Cross Public Health Nurse who has been working almost exclusively in the county schools has been able to have among children examined and treated or operated on free of charge and their clinic.
At the March Clinic 11 school children were reported as having attended to have eyes tested, dentist work done or tonsils and adnoids removed.
This hospital does not care for indigent patients outside of the clinic, free of charge. There have been in the past year, 4 cases which the county paid for from the fund, and three transients oar d for at harvest time last summer were not paid for by anyone. The State gives the hospital $100.00 per year..
St. Lukes Hospital
This hospital receives an annual sum of $2,000 from the city of Wellington and $150 from the State. There are 10 private rooms, 2 wards, of 4 beds each,
one for men and one for women. A graduate nurse is the superintendent. This hospital is a contract hospital for the U. S. Public Health Service, and patients whom the War Risk Insurance Bureau are paying for are cared for here. The city had 14 free patients in the hospital in 1920. The Red Cross referred 5 cases for free tonsillectomy. The county is paying for the care of two patients at St. Lukes at present. The charge is $18.00 per week for a bed in a ward.
health Page 25
There are free clinics held regularly in the hospital also. There were three schoo1 children from out in the county brought in to the last clinic in March.
Red Cross Public Health Nursing Work
The Sumner County Chapter of the Red Cross employs a Public Health Nurse, as has been indicated above. Her work, this past year has been mainly in the county schools, examining school chi1dren and recommending treatment or corrections to better their health. A total of 2147 pupils througout the county were examined. There are altogether 198 schools in the county with a total of 8965 pupils. This work is the first that has been done among the county schools and some facts were brought to light showing the great need of just this sort of thing. For instance, it was found that 20 per cent of the children had defective vision; 56 per cent had defective teeth and 37 per cent had tonsils. 25 per cent were found to be underweight.
Besides this work the nurse conducted 16 baby conferences last summer at which babies were brought to be weighed and measured and examined. 824 babies were examined by physicians at these conferences, 120 in Wellington. These were held several other places besides Wellington. Plans are now being made to conduct more of these this summer, it is understood.
Last year there ware two clinics for crippled children conducted under the auspices of the Red Cross. Thirty children attended the first one and six the last one. A skin clinic held later had an attendance of 21. Specialists from Kansas City conducted those clinics.
A boy of about 10 years was found at a crippled child clinic who had never walked. He now walks everywhere with the aid of braces and crutches which the Red Cross were instrumental in getting for him.
Venereal Disease
It was very difficult to get any detailed information regarding the prevalence of venereal disease in Wellington because of the fact that,outside of the City Health Officer there is no one in the city who treats the disease officially; that is, there is no public clinic or provision to held infected persons during treatment, as there are many places, persons found to be infected can be committed if males to the State Prison Hospital, if females to the Woman's Farm at Lansing. The Health Officer may use his discretion as to treatment of the cases at home. The difficulty in detecting cases and treating them is the closeness with which problems of delinquency is linked up with the disease.
Because of this situation many having the disease shrink from reporting their condition and try to treat themselves with some patent medicine which is purchased at a drug store, or, knowing that a health officer will report the case to the authorities or at least to the State Board of Health, approach some physician whom they have reason to believe will not report them to the authorities. While it seems that a lot is involved in a patient's committing himself to the care of a physician who will treat him individually, not "betray-ing" his confidence by reporting his case to the State Board of Health, yet is is not true that, aside from the fact that there is a rule of the Kansas State Board of Health that these cases be reported not necessarily by name to their bureau, -the service of any man organization or institution is ultimately measured by the amount rendered to the greatest number? This is especially true insofar as it concerns public Health and these particular diseases; for they strike at the vitals and soul of a community as no others do.
Health Page 26
Individuals with these diseases will walk the streets, eat at the restaurants, sleep in the beds, live in the homes of any community, which, unwakened to the dangers involved to their innocent women and children will countenance a lax way of dealing with the problems. When people generallly realise that even conservatively speaking, 75 per cent of the operations performed on women, of a pelvic nature are necessary because they have been infected by their husbands with a disease from which, many times, he thought himself cured; and that pre-mature births, still births, miscarriages, blindness and unnatural development in children are the direct results of venereal diseases in one or both parents, they will pass some laws with teeth in them and take measures to see that the menace is reduced to a minimum.
how far public opinion has been educated in Wellington may be judged, when it can be said by the State Board of Health one who inquires as to the number of cases of venereal disease reported in the past year, that the 7 eases of Gonnorhea, 2 cases of syphilis, and one of chancroid reported from Sumner County were reported by the County and City Health Officers. The letter in no way represented the total number of cases, because other cases were known of that were not reported; this condition prevails in spite of there being a rule of the state that anyone treating a case of venereal disease, or prescribing for it, must report it to the Board of Health. This includes Druggists selling medicines, also. The patients name need not be disclosed - a serial number being sufficient. This information is so essential to the Board's carrying on a successful campaign against these diseases that if all counties re-ported no better than Sumner, they would have to wage their battle in the dark, almost completely.
Another rule of the State Board of Health that is very poor-
ly carried out in Wellington is the one requiring local authorities to see that all persons employed in the restaurants, hotels, groceries, etc. where they handle exposed foods must furnish a health certificate showing that they are free from disease. One reason that it is difficult to enforce this rule is that it is not backed up by the local ordinance. If a local ordinance could be obtained by the citizens interested, making the non-enforcement and infringement of this rule an offense or crime against the city as well as the State, then the danger to the public through this avenue would minimized.
Venereal disease being so closely connected with delinquency it seems that something should be said here regarding that phase of the problems. Wellington has no district known as a "Red Light" or segregated district, home-ever by the police. The report is that there are comparatively very few women residing in Wellington permanently who are prostitutes. It is said that women come down from Wichita fairly often stopping several days or more and moving on. The fact that the lack of liquor makes the parties of this character more quiet, when in hotels, rooming houses or private houses, and also that machines are used so much makes detection by the police much more difficult. It might be that a police-women would be of assistance in this problem, and also in policing the railroad stations, - the Santa Fe one especially. The resent force of the police department is too small to admit of as thorough policing of the stations as is desirable, it was reported.
Again it must be said, that education is the hope for salvation
in this problem. The school Board has had a lecture and a film on the subject of venereal disease within this last year and much good was undoubtedly done. It would seem that more films and more lectures could accomplish, a great amount of good at this time since more people are coming to realize their ignorance of the facts about the problems, Lectures of films brought at this time to the city would
Health Page 27
teach the facts and drive them home to those who already have gained some knowledge and would also help spread the needed education more thoroughly,
Tuberculosis is another menace to Public Health which cannot be successfully fought by medicine and nursing alone. Education plays an equal if not greater part in controlling the spread of the disease in a community. In- dividual well informed as to matters of health and the simple methods which should he practised by everyone to keep in good condition, do not run a very great risk, ever, of having tuberculosis germs develop in them to a dangerous extent. After the individual has reached a moderately or far advanced state, however, and even before, knowledge of how to protect others from becoming infected should be common property.
Such educational activities as have been made generally in all localities, in any organized way, have been undertaken by the Kansas State Anti-Tuberculosis association. In cooperation with the State Board of Health they have been working to prevent the occurence and spread of the disease for a long time. In some of the larger cities in the country they establish offices and maintain a staff of competent nurses who work with tuberculosis or suspected cases in their homes. In Kansas, in the past they have, for most of the cities of the size of Wellington, only been able to send their travelling nurses in about twice a month, Wellington has had a nurse visit every other week until March of this year. The nurse had to cover all of the county as well while stopping in Wellington because of the failure of the Christmas seals of the Association to sell as well as was hoped, the budget had to be reduced about half for this year, and in consequence, about half of the nurses of the force had to be released. The nurse who came to Wellington was among them. She had been
able in the past to at least keep a list of active cases of tuberculosis in the
county, if not to visit all cases for lack of time, Educational propaganda was spread as much as possible in the short visits the nurse was able to make.
Now it is reported that there are about 200 known cases of tuberculosis in Sumner County. When one stops to consider that aside from the above described activities and several clinics there has been nothing organized done inside of their homes and realizes that according to statements of nurses and physicians for every reported cases of tuberculosis there have been an average of 7 persons exposed to the degree of risking infection, the extent of the danger to public health,the lack of these things involves. It is true that there are hospitals in the county both private and semi-public but they cannot, for lack of space and equipment take chronic cases such as tuberculosis. The county poor farm takes no sick persons for residence in the home. So that, unless fortunate enough to have the means for a private sanitarium or to stand the long wait necessary to get into the state Sanitarium, the tubercular person must remain at home generally risking the lives of the others in the household be-cause of ignorance of the proper precautions to take and in all probability die for lack of the care which it is the legitimate duty of a community to provide.
Under the auspices for the Red Cross three Tuberculosis Clinics were held in Wellington in the past year. Figures from the report of the nursing chairman show that by some one of those interested - himself as County Health Officer, the nurse of the Anti-Tuberculosis Association or by clinic ex-aminations, 90 persons with Tuberculosis were located and reported in 1920.
The total cases known approximately 200 would fill the state sanitarium and another of equal size, it was said.
Figures on the attendance and examination at the last clinic clinic held in the fall were:
Health page 28
Total Attendance-76
Total Examined-57
Adults - 31
| Children 26
Results shown:
Active—18 adults, 2 children
Suspected- 3 adults 8 children
Arrested-3 adults
Negative 7 adults, 16 children
It was reported that the number of women with small children who had the disease was startling. There was an attempt to examine all the children who were exposed to the disease through a parent. One mother is on the waiting
list now, to go to the State Sanitarium at County expense. The county has paid for several patients' care there in the post year. One child found to have a tubercular spine was sent away by the Red Cross for treatment and the cast put on her has enabled her to walk. The funds to send parsons away with, however, do not help much, when there is no place to send them.
In studying the poverty problem it was noted that a large percent of the families receiving aid were families in which one or more members had tuberculosis. One family group, especially, had out of all members 8 who were a reported tubercular or as having died of tuberculosis, needless to say there were other problems in this family. They were known to every body In town giving relief; illegitimacy was another problem. In another family known to the County Commissioners the woman died of tuberculosis; and one of the three children had curviture of the spine and incipient tuberculosis. In still another family cited by the County Commissioners the woman died of tuberculosis and two of the 4 children had bronchial tuberculosis.
From the records of the registrar the deaths from tuberculosis in 1920, were copied according to age and sex. There were a total of 9 deaths listed two were men, six women and one a child. The ages were as follows:
Men - age 53 and 85 years;
Women, 14, 22, 28,35, 42 and 43 years;
Child, 5 days old.
From the County Health Officer the following figures on cases of Tuberculosis reported since 1909 were obtained. These do not represent the total known cases, but are the ones reported by physicians treating them according to state laws.
TABLE II
Total for County
Known died Moved last 47 38 87 22 134 60 21
Recovered 14 7
Known Active cases At present 35 100 135(*)
Total reported 134 216 350

Health Page 29
(*) Note: other cases are known, but are in other conditions as Incipient, Advanced, etc.
The death rate of Wellington from tuberculosis in 1918 was 20 per 1000 of population; for the rest of the county, 2.89. In 1919 the rate was 9.51 for Wellington and 4.63 for the County outside of Wellington. It is interesting to consider the death rate for influenza at the same time as for tuberculosis.
In 1918 the death rate for Wellington from influence was 27.2 per 1000; for the County except Wellington, 13.9; for 1919, it was 4.7 per 1000 in Wellington and 5.5 in the County.
\
Health Page 30
Recommendation of health
1. Tuberculosis.
In order to bombat the spread of this disease and in some
measure alleviate the distress among those who have an infection, it is re-commended that:
a. The committee appointed by the County Chapter Executive
Committee and later confirmed by the Chairman of the Advisory Committee of this study, and requested to report to them also, upon the necessity, possibility and feasebility of the branch and chapter making some definite provisions for the oare of tuberculosis patients-especially the indigent cases, be instructed to report their finding and recommendations to a joint meeting of the chapter and branch executive committees in the very near future.
b. The discussion by the advisory committee at the meeting of
March 25, on the question of creating one or two shacks at the Chatpers expense, at the same requesting other organizations in Wellington and the count to do the same, thus forming a group that could be served by the same medical and nursing service, be kept in mind when making plans for caring for this problem.
C. No definite plans should be formulated without gathering all
available information on such undertakings, obtainable from the National Public Health Association formerly known as the Tuberculosis Association), the State Board of Health, etc. A visit should be paid by a member of the committee or members to such plants as Wichita has in order to study the structure, methods of service, etc.
d. Since there are numerous cases of tuberculosis in Wellington
in all stages, the Red Cross Public Health Nurse, when able, as her school work lightens up, give some time to visiting those patients in their homes and giving them instructions; this work should be followed up by a clinic and should, also if at all possible, be preceded by one.
2. Venereal Disease.
It is recommended that the Wellington Branch undertake some educational and instructional work to prevent the increase and spread of this type of disease. In order to do this, the Wellington Branch should invite the representative of the United States Inter-Departmental Social Hygiene Board in Leavenworth, to address local organizations, schools, etc., and that the Woman's Service Club be requested to arrange a Woman's mass meeting at the time this representative is here. The State Board of Health films on Venereal Diseases should be brought here again in the near future, the local branch itself or acting through the local Board of Health being instrumental in arranging for this.
CHILD WELFARE
Child Welfare-31
CHILD WELFARE
JUVENILE DELINQUENCY AND DEPENDENCY ■
So generally spread over the country is the opinion that problems involving children must be dealt with by special arrangements and provisions for court action or protection that there are few places which do not have some provision where by the interest of children coming to the attention of the public are safeguarded by an officer who will carry out the necessary action outside of any criminal or other court when adults are generally tried.
The law of Kansas provides that the Judge of the Probate Court of a county must act as Juvenile Judge. Children, under 18 years of age are under his jurisdiction and if a person comes under the courts' notice or is made a ward or placed on probation he is under this officers jurisdiction until he is 21 years of age. In order for the judge to have an officer to act in juvenile cases, he is permitted by state law to pay $3.00 per day and expenses to the person designated by him as Probation Officer.

The law states that cases of juvenile delinquency should be tried in an "informal manner" and dealt with in an "summery way". There are no special days set aside for hearing juvenile cases by the judge nor is formal court conducted to try any case. There are not enough cases occurring at any rate in this county to warrant a special day or half-day regularly for juvenile cases.

The judge follows the plan of having the Truant Officer of the County and City Schools act as Probation Officer when the occasion arises, for there are so few cases coming up that no one could afford not do anything else but probation work for the Juvenile Court.
As a rule it is only the more serious offenses that are brought before the judge stealing being the most common. Dependent children are of course, handled through the court when it is necessary to send them to an orphanage or other places for care. The other cases-truancy, incorrigibility, etc. are handled unofficially and never see the judge. Only the cases brought before the judge are kept a record of, that is, those who have had to be sent to an industrial school or orphanage, etc. The others are not recorded in any way, nor are the cases which are handled outside of court by the probation officer made a record of. So that no figures can be presented here on the number of delinquents dealt with by the officer, except that the estimate for the past year was given as 90.
It was learned, however, that six children, four boys and 2 girls had been sent to the state industrial schools from the Sumner County in the past year. All but one boy were from Wellington but only one girl was from there. The boys were all sent o the industrial schoo1 at Topeka for stealing. One boy had been there before and will have to earn twice as many merits to be released as ordinarly. The number of merits is 4000 and one to two years are required to obtain this number. One other boy had had a brother who formerly served a sentence there also.
The girls were both sent to the Beloit Industrial School for immorality. One was the innocent victim of an unscrupulous father who betrayed her to get money from some Mexicans. The other girl was accused of being immoral.
Child Welfare 32

Very few dependent children have come to the notice of the oourt recently, only a five having been sent to the State Home at Atchison in the last 2 years. There is a child placing agency, a branch of the Childrens Home Finding Society in Wichita and a few children from there have been adopted in Wellington and the County. Wince the time, approximately three years ago, when an agent of this society from New York, came out bringing 12 children along to adopt out here has been no such number adopted through the court.

Truancy is known as a problem fore-running and co-existing with more serious forms of delinquency if left unsupervised and uncontrolled.
The percent of the whole number of pupils enrolled who re truants, regularly or occasionally is not a large one. School authorities consider, but there are certain individual cases which have been found to be very difficult to handle. Neither the truant officer or the school authorities seem to be able to deal with the cases in a way to settle them once and for all, for they only continue staying away from school. Some of them develop into worse offenders, one having recently almost been sent to Beloit on account of being implicated in a theft. It was said that there is a sort of "(gang" of boys, some who go to second Ward School, and some of whom are in Junior High School who have given a lot of troube by stealing.
Since no figures on the number of each type of Juvenile de-linquency can be presented so some facts about the known cases, (that is the three boys sent to industrial school, also two girls from Wellington and one other case in Wellington which did not come to court but were settled by school authorities)
which were gathered at the time of this study will be presented here.
1. A boy of 16 years of age, charged with stealing, has both parents living and 6 brothers and sisters. His brother once served a sentence at Topeka. The Associated Charities Board has had to help the family regularly for years. The man and woman are about 45 and 50 years of age and some of the children are grown and gone away. They are known as a "Shiftless" family and have been helped also by the county.
2. This is a boy aged 11 years whose father deserted the family. There are 3 other children besides this boy. The woman has a very bad cancer
in the mouth which has recently been operated on at the city hospital. This is the second time the man deserted the woman. He has been gone about a year this time. The Associated Charities and County Commissioners have aided this woman.
One of this boys older sisters ran off a couple of years ago with another girl.
The man was very unpleasant about home.
3. This case is a boy of 13 years of age who is serving his
second term in Topeka, He is there for stealing, The family of this boy has been helped by the Associated Charities fairly regularly, and are known as being "Shiftless", the man especially. He was injured at a local flour mill, sued and obtained some damages. Since that time he has never worked regularly. His injury is negligible, it is said and he should work,
4. A boy about 14 years of age who was recently brought before
the court on a charge of stealing and was almost sent to Topeka, His companion was a boy ho had formerly served a term there sad who ran away. His family do not live in Wellington now, it is said. He was sent back to Topeka. The boy from Wellington is in the Junior High School. His teachers report that he attends very irregularly; appears 2 years older than his age, and does very poor work in his studies generally. His poor work is not so much because of natural dullness
as the irregular attendance.
5. This case is that of a girl about 14 years old who is in
Beloit. Her case is the old story of a mother left alone to rear her child, and having to be away from home too much. The girl went wrong from lack of proper influence and supervision
6. Another girl about 15 had to be asked to quit school because
of her immoral actions. She afterwards married, shortly after having an illegitimate child said to be a Mexican's child. The girls mother has a bad reputation and probably, encouraged the girl to lead the life she did. Her father worked away from the city a lot and was said to have a bad reputation also. The mother's brother is a drunkard. The last report said that the girl is now deserted and is suspected of having venereal disease.
One thing shown more clearly than anything else by these histories is that juvenile delinquency is not an isolated condition that happens by itself. It is a result just the same as diseases are the results of poor living conditions and carelessness in health matters. Since this is so, then in order to solve the problems should not the biggest emphasis and effort be put forth to stop up the source of the problem? This seems logical and sensible and must ultimately be the method used by all agencies and officials seeking to solve the problem of juvenile delinquency. To take one child out of environments such as are above described and place him in an industrial school where he is taught a trade and disciplined is not to protect the other children of the household or to insure against the same sort of thing happening to them, as was shown in the instance of the two brothers who were in the school. Careful, tactful
follow up work- Welfare work in the homes of these people is wanted in order to
accomplish anything. Families known to committees as being "Worthless" and Shiftless" have a social malady that should be treated by some welfare agency, the same as one suffering from a disease or injury. It may take years of patient work and understanding to put them back on their feet, but since any community which helps make paupers of such person by dalling out food, coal, and rent to them should feel a certain amount of responsibility, why not go about solving the problem in the right way?
Child Welfare - 34
RECOMMENDATIONS ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY
Under ideal circumstances, Wellington and Sumner County should and will have at some future time a full time probation officer for juvenile cases, and a detention home. Since the compensation at the present time is so small that
no person can give full time to the work, and in order to care for the cases oc-
curring especially in Wellington in a more personal and corrective way, it is suggested that the present probation officer secure the cooperation of the social worker whom it is suggested elsewhere in this work the local branch of the Red Cross employ, in investigating, recording and doing follow-up work on the juvenile delinquents or dependents of the city. It is also suggested that the school board request this same cooperation on truancy cases in Wellington, and use the school social worker in the same way as a visiting teacher is used elsewhere.
FAMILY WELFARE
Family Welfare - 35
Family Welfare
The recognition of and ministration to the distress of
families and individuals found living in poverty has long been practised in civilised communities. Both private and public funds have been set aside to provide for the needs of such persons who are unable to provide for themselves for some cause or other. So that the citizen of most communities who finds himself unable to secure a livlihood because of old age, a permanent physical or mental handicap, some chronic illness, the wider or deserted woman who has been left with small children to care, may seek and obtain assistance in what measure is needed. This is felt to be the rightful responsibility of the public, since the community has had or will have in the case of children assisted, certain benefits from the persons aided, as citizens. It is true that all classes do not contribute towards the good or wealth of the community, but are drags, some of them because of a limited physical or mental equipment which they probably inherited or acquired from living under conditions very much below the standards or requirements for decent healthful living. It has been said of this class that they "are poor because they have been poor". These individuals, the state provides institutions for isola ting or segregating, when their condition is a menace to themselves or the public, for their state is, in a way, caused by factors which the State should control and does not, very successfully, by failing to control the factors which influence for over against the production of a desireable citizenry. Such things are advocated by same, as eugenic laws or more careful and far-reaching marriage laws; so that persons hopelessly insane, feebleminded or diseased would not be permitted to marry and propagate their kind, thus filling more and larger institutions to over-flowing everywhere.
The eight of the distress of the disadvantaged families in most communities also causes one or more private agencies to organize to do something for them from humanitarian motives and also because it is such a work as repays those engaged in it with a great amount of satisfaction; for the feeling that one is really relieving some ones else distress is very pleasant.
Wellington and Sumner County have such provisions as are above discribed. They have had a public fund and private organization with funds and workers to supply the creature or physical needs of disadvantaged families in or near Wellington. The Red Cross, too has done a limited amount of this kind of work among civilian families as well as those of service and ex-service men.
Persons everywhere, and some individuals in Welllington engaged in trying to relieve distress by furnishing food, good housing and clothing to the needy sooner or later have realised that to merely dole out those forms of relief regularly without going further and trying to solve the problems or correct the cause underlying conditions as found is not to accomplish anything beyond allay-ing the distress for the moment. This course of action, is moreover, not fair either to a community which is spending thousands of dollars annually on this thing or to the families aided, since ultimately, if allowed to seek aid anywhere and everywhere without check or effort being made to prevent duplication, they will become true paupers, all sense of self-respect and responsibility, gone, living in abject poverty and not seeking to lift themselves out. The steps and causes leading to pauperism have been studied carefully by sociologists both in this country and in Europe and these are their conclusions.
Family Welfare - 36

In studying the problem of poverty in Wellington some attention was given to the elements composing the population and the factors in-fluencing their presence. Thus it was seen that while most of the domestic industries, that is industries naturally placed in the city, employ a greater percent of skilled or semi-skilled labor there are in the railroad Shops
of the Sante Fe Company, 35 to 50 per cent semi-skilled and unskilled laborers employed besides a large number, constantly varying, of unskilled section hands* and laborers who are generally Mexicans brought in by the railroad Company for certain emergencies. This means that Wellington has besides here own normal per cent of unskilled laborers a large number ad added who are attracted or brought into the town by the employment in the railroad shops. The number of unskilled laborers in a city is always a good starting point in trying to arrive at some idea of the extent of poverty. This is true because in by far the largest majority of cases, the unskilled laborer lives with a very small margin of in-come that is, his wages do not very much more than cover his bare living expenses and he has a very small amount of surplus to save or use for investments in a home, etc. Consequently when a time of unemployment comes or a cut of wages, many are unprepared - have none or very little money ahead to use and are forced to seek aid. It is true that laborers have in the past few years been receiving abnormally large wages, but the majority of them saved very little during those unusual times, and will soon find themselves in the same old condition. Widows and fatherless children of this type fare very hard. Seldom if if every is the wage of an unskilled laborer large enough to enable him to carry a large enough life insurance to provide well for his widow. Too often no insurance is carried,
or only a large enough amount for burial. Then comes the bitter years for the widows and children. It is for these widows and children that such provisions as Mother's Pensions, and Day Nurseries and Orphanages have had to be made.
Then there are the aged persons who have never had a trade who as long as they could wored with their hands and muscles. Worn out at an earlier age, many times, than an person who could conserve strength because toiling at some labor requiring skill and not mere strength, they are case aside by industry anywhere from 50 to 60 years of age to be cared for by the public if there are no grown children to care for them.
These factors together with the consideration of the hereditar-ily insane feeble-minded, diseased, the handicapped, those having some chronic illness, illness of the breadwinner are the causes underlying nearly all of the poverty in Wellington or any town of similar constitution.
Mexicans.
Because of the unusual number of Mexicans in Wellington an effort was made to get some facts regarding their condition made of living etc.

It was learned that though there are sometimes as many as from 300 to 500 Mexicans working for the Santa Fe in or near Wellington, that there are probably only about 40 families living permanently there. They live almost exclusively in the second ward near the railroad shops and a few in box cars. The Railroad Company has a row of apartments jointed together made of concrete about finished which will house about 6 families when completed. Companies are required by federal law to agree when transporting Mexicans into the U. S. to furnish housing for them where-ever they are to be employed. Most of the families now live in 2 or 3 rooms houses or shacks in this district for which they pay for $8 to $12 per month rent as a rule. The houses most of them are in very bad repair, for landlords find
that Mexicans are very hard on houses because of the way they live.
Family Welfare
37
ignorant, used to a very different and lower standard of living in Mexico than most our poorest families. It seems that education is the best hope for bettering their condition. There is one Catholic Church in Wellington and it was reported that only about 10 of the families attend regularly. Most Mexicans have been brought up in the Catholic Church if any. There is no parochial school in Well-ington, and the children who go to school attend the second Ward school. The amount of truancy and non-attendance among the Mexican Children far exceeds that of American Children. The child of Mexicans is a problem in the schools. Be-yond the age of the other children in the grade generally and many time having to learn English first, it is difficult for a teacher to handle more than 2 or 3 of them as a rule in the lower grades. The great difficulty in enforcing the school attendance law with these families lies in the fact that they are very wily and understand English so poorly; also because identity of children of residents is very hard to establish since there are generally two or more.
Families living together, and some of them are to only stay a short time, etc. Teachers report that when the Mexicans children do stay in school and continue through the higher grades they are among the brightest pupils. The boys are more often sent than the girls, for when girls become 10 or 12 years old they are kept at home to work.
As was said in the discussion under industry ad employment the wage cut made by the Santa Fe recently, affected the unskilled 1aborers most and Mexicans especially. The wage for unskilled laborer now is $3.85 per day. A grocery located in this district furnishes credit to Mexicans employed by the Sante Fe. When getting groceries the man gives an order on his pay to the grocer who is paid directly by the company out of the men's wages.
If these people remained in the city a generation or two some
things would happen to them from merely associating and being touched by American Families. Their standards of living would improve, their children would go to school more regularly and they would not be looked upon as hopeless problems so much as they are now. Waiting a generation or two from improvement of some of the conditions among them, however is too long a process, and, while caring for their sick and aged and poor, as has been done and is being done, why not, try at the same time to win their confidence, getting into their houses teaching them gradually Americanizing them in this generation?
Cases were cited of families that were found living in almost indescribable conditions with no beds and no bedding, infants killed by carelessness and neglect. It was said that when some agency or individual went in taking bedding, clothing food, etc. they were not appreciated at all. Experiences like these have lead many to become discouraged with trying to do anything at all. Succesful work can be done with them, however, and is being done in many pieces. Entrance into their homes, class work in English, sewing cooking, all Americans ways of doing things as well as proper care of children, have all to be accomplished in various places, and can be done in Wellington too, if gone about in a tactful and systematic manner. Bringing Mexicans of the class which came to Wellington and other places for work, the peon class, they are
called in Mexico up to our level, just means beginning a little down on the scale of education than with American Families.

County Poor Relief and Farm

Until two years ago the funds for relief and the expense of the county farm were drawn from the General Fund. Now the County Commissioners have their own fund to administer and besides saying the above mentioned expense
they pay physician to do free work for the needy.
Too get some idea or the amounts involved in this fund in the past year, the expenditures are here quoted for 1920.

Family Welfare - 38

Pauper Relief $5079.87
County Farm ----------------------------
Merchandise & Laborer 5575.87
Light & Fuel 647.38
Salaries 1200.00

Widows' Pension------------------------ 72.00
Physicians Salaries
and Medicine - - - 958.52
Burial - - — 110.00
TOTAL SPENT $13,643.64
Remainder ....2892.54
Total Fund $16,536.18

The levy for the current year-from Nov. 1, 1920 to N0v. 1st,
1921 is $21.600. Pauper relief is the amount spent for food, clothing, rent and fuel for needy families. These apply or are reported as being in need to the County Commissioner of the district - (there are three districts in the county) - who investi-gates and gives whatever he thinks necessary. Some times this is a regular weekly or monthly amount of groceries, etc. and in other ones the aid is of an emergent character. The recent county commissioners letters has just gone out into office so had no records as to the number of families assisted in the past year. There are twelve families being aided more or less regularly at the present time. There has been in the past an effort to cooperate with the associated Charity Board who often furnished clothing while the county furnished food, etc. There is no regular set day or time for applicants to apply or receive groceries. The applicant fills out a request or order of groceries which the official checks up and assigns some
grocer. With all the other duties of his office and present business, the commissione has not the time to make more than one or two calls in these peoples homes, and naturally cannot keep in as close touch with them as would be desirable if constructive welfare work were done with them. If any corrective measures need be taken in other words, there is no one to do this, and the family flounder along in the same old way.

The county Farm is situated west of the city adjoining the city golf park. It contains 150 acres, most of which ground is not very productive since it is flooded by the creek running through it when ever there is a heavy rain fall.

The dam is below the farm on this creek, and that is why the low land to the west is so apt to be flooded.
The buildings of the farm are all built to the east of the creek on 2 acres of ground that are a little higher. Besides the brick building housing the inmates and superintendents family there are about 6 out buildings.
The superintendent keeps about 100 chickens, a couple cows, a mule and driving horse, the latter for his own convenience as there is no way to get into town. Last year some hogs for his own convenience were raised but died of cholera and so none are being raised this year. The farm doesn't produce much more than the institution needs for its own use. Alfalfa etc. Raised is most of it fed to the stock kept.
Cows and chickens also are kept just the use of the institution and a truck garden is planted every year for the table. There are no fruit trees and until recently there were no trees of any kind about the building. Some decorative trees and shrubs were planted this spring by the commissioners. The day the farm was visited however, the superintendents wife reported that someone had been burning grass on the golf links and the fire had come so close the day before that some of the trees had been killed.
While inquiring at the county treasurers office regarding the poor fund it was learned that in the past two years the only produce of the farm that has been sold amounted to $189.25.
Family Welfare- 39
The infirmary building is a large substantially built place with it is judged about 19 rooms and three bath rooms besides the dining room, Kitchen, laundry, furnace and store room in the basement.
Three of the rooms are much larger than the others one down stairs and tow on the second floor-there are really wards, they are so large.
Only one is used at present an old married couple having it. The furniture for two people is almost lost in the room as it is. The other rooms are single size rooms about right for the purpose. The ceilings are so high, however and the arrange-ment of space so planned that it is felt there is much waste. There will be about $1000.00 spent on the farm this year for improvements to an building. A new chicken house has already been built. A new coal house is also to be built.
The arrangement for the care of the farm and inmates is that the county Commissioners pay $1200 per year to the superintendent and he has free maintenance and housing there in the building. There is no regular help kept, the superintents wife acting as matron and using inmates to help abut the place.
The house and ground appeared well cared for, the halls and floors seem clean, dining room and kitchen also very clean.
There is one widow who is getting Mother's Pension in Sumner County. The Kansas law provides that a oounty may set aside certain funds for Mother's Pensions, their provision coming under the jurisdiction of the county Commissioners, who receive formal applications supported by affidavits from widows with dependent children who have resided in the county at least two year.
The commissioners may appoint a committee of reputable women citizens to investigate
the case and upon favorable recommendation the widow may be paid a monthly pension not to exceed 25.00. The last legislation raised this to $50.00. The law states that the application must be made out in duplicate and for our copy filed with the juvenile judge in order that the children may be farther safeguared by that officer having on file the names of the children whose mother is receiving a pension to assist her to rear them properly. The law as a whole is very much lacking very much below the standard set by other neighboring states.
There are twelve physicians being paid a yearly sum to care for indigent sick person throughout the county. One of these the one who has Well-ington for his district receives more than the others because of the additional work and responsibilities he has. He is also furnished medicines for the poor patients. He is not expected to give full time as he is also the City Health Officer, receiving a salary on a pert time basis for that.
The County found it necessary to furnish funds for one burial in the past year. A person dying without funds or relative who can assume the responsibility for burial is buried at the minimum cost for burials.
The county poor fund also covers transportation granted to indigent persons who may or may not belong in the county. For instance a family going through from Buffalo, N. Y. last summer to Phoenix, Arizona, stopped off in Wellington without funds to go on. Tickets were purchased as far as some town in Oklahoma which was as far the officials felt they could send them. They hoped that some one else would send them on to Phoenix from there. In another instance a blind man was sent to his home, having become stranded in Wellington. About such cases as the first one mentioned, however, it should be said that this method of "passing on" is not the accepted way to deal with this type of case. The evils caused and dangers to the family as well as to other can easily be seen. It is probable that the man would have been benefited by the climate in Arizona, but it was wrong to send the family there or near there without first having more than the family's statement that they had the assurance of some care there. Addresses of prospective
Family Welfare - 41
employs or friends in the place they were going should have been secured and verified by wire to the Associated Charities, Red Cross or some City official.
These families have no legitimate claims on any town except the one where they have legal residence and when it is advisable for them to return home the county or city officials or the charitable organization in their home town should be communicated with, and asked to reimburse for transportation. This
is the "Transportation Agreement" signed and agreed to by most organizations in the country who are trying to practice the golden rule.
The Obvious unfairness of using funds collected from citizens of the county for the prupose of caring for their own poor who have lived in the community long enough to have gained legal residence-one year in most places, -for helping any individual or family, who comes along " Beating" their way, travelling around over the country at others' expense is recognized by many and though exceptions are made, and all treated in a humane way. Such travellers are not encouraged by granting them transportation promiscuously. In the case of an able bodied man or woman a Job could be secured and they could be allowed to stop and earn enough to carry them on to where they wish to go or else they could and should be sent back to their own home at their own countys expense. Most places who follow this plan assist the individual or family with meals and lodging while making a plan for them a matter of a few days generally. It isn't so much that any money is saved by one plan or the other, but that the beat interests of transients and of the communities they would impose upon are safeguarded.
If the numbers of beggars who come to Wellington to beg on the streets were treated in this manner, or the city ordinance regarding vagrancy and begging were to be a little more strictly enforced there would be a lot more good accomplished than by allowing them to impose on the public by squatting on the streets with their hand held out. The city ordinance - # 302, says in part:" —— or any person be deemed a vagrant and upon conviction shall be fined any sum not less than $5.00 or more than $100.00 and such a person shall be imprisoned and set at work until such fine is paid.

The Associated Charities Board

This organization was planned by the Ministerial Alliance and consists of 2 members from each protestant Church in the city, making it 16 in all. They have obtained funds by an annual tag day and receive donations of old clothing, bedding from November to November. The officers are, a president, Secretary, treasurer, etc. The members each are responsible for a certain section of each ward in the city. The bulk of the funds raised at the tag day is spent for Christmas Baskets for the poor of the city, for throughout the year more clothing is furnished than anything else, the organization cooperating with the county commissioners who generally furnish the food.
Last Christmas the organization gave baskets to 91 families The total funds raised in November, 1920 were $570.16. The records are kept on cards but are not kept in such a way that the total number of families aided could
be given. The report was, that all of the 91 families given baskets were aided in some way or other at ether times during the year.
The Red Cross —
While not all of the Red Cross activities come under Family Welfare, the main work outside of the Public Health Work was in Home Service the past year, so the whole discussion is included here.
Family Welfare- 42
The Sumner County Chapter was organized May 25, 1917, but not until 1918 were any Home Service cases reported as having been handled by the office. The Roll Call of December 1917 reported 5137 members, and for 1918,
6207, while in 1919 a quota or 7000 members was set. For the First War Fund,
June 1917, $55,168.49 was paid by the Chapter and for the Second, May 1918, they were assigned $22,287.00;accepted a responsibility for $30,800 and paid $51,375.48.
A Red Cross Canteen was established in 1918, and a total of 2633 were served through it, though it was not organized until in August, Caldwell, a branch town organized their canteen in April of that year. Both towns are division points for through trains of the Sante Fe and Rock Island,
In 1919 the Canteen Service reached a total of 2730. An emergency attention and ambulance service was maintained in connection with the canteen. The canteen in Wellington was closed in Aug.1919, and the Caldwell one in June.
The Chapter carried on production work also, and filled a quota of garments for overseas. On March 1919, 5598 lbs of clothing were shipped, 5000 lbs having been the quota for one county.
Besides Caldwell, branches as Auxilliaries were organized in the following towns in the county; Anson Argonia, Ashton, Belle Plain, Conway Springs, Dalton, Hunnewell, Mayfield, Milan, Wilton, Oxford, Palestine,
Peck Perth and South Haven, a total of 16 branches and auxilliaries in all.
All of these except Peck and Palestine have some organization at present,
River dale, Portland and Geuda Springs having been added.
The Junior Red Cross has been organized in connection with the schools, before this year a member ship fee of $.25 was charged. Now membership does not involve any money except that the class or club joining must subscribe for the Junior Red Cross Magazine, one subscription for the whole group sufficing At present education and habits are being taught, and they have also financed medical and surgical assistance for 4 children who are too poor to receive this. They had $615.01 on hand in October 1920, but have no special program or plans at present to use this. The schools in Wellington are using the studies in civics that are put out for juniors.
Some facts and figures from the Chapter's last yearly report October 1920, for year ending October 1st, are here included as being the most direct way of showing what the work in all lines has been the past year.

FINANCIAL STATEMENT (Exclusive of Home Service)
On hand, October 1, 1919 $7979.73
Received in year Ootober'19
To Sept 30, 1920 $2854.26
TOTAL $10,833.99
Total expenses 4,761.84
Remainder 6,072.15
Some of the items of expenditure were as follows:
Child Welfare 43
Nursing Service-Total $2714.84
Expenses of Car—$972.18 Nurses and Expenses for Classes- ----$ 403.42 Salaries- - - - —$1339.24
Home Service —Total $545.75 (Not including Salaries) Including-
Loans to Service or Ex-Service Men- - - -$358.00 Grants " " " " " 108.25
Messages & Telephone Calls 21.67
Stamps. Printing, etc 36.06
Caldwell Branch $150.00 ■
$545.73
For Home Service Work a fund of $3,000.00 was set aside in 1918 and this is still being drawn on, the balance shown on a statement by the treasurer on a statement by the Treasurer on a Statement by the Treasurer October 26, 1920, being $1325.50.
The Home Service Work during the war was most of it done by by present secretary and the present Home Service Committee Chairman. The arrangement lately has been to retain a secretary on a half tine basis, paying $50.00 per month for the salary out of general Chapter funds.
Offices are maintained with a rest room in connection with them for which a matron is employed by the Chatper. the Wellington Branch paying the rent on all of the rooms- 3 and a toilet. Rent is $30 per month and the salary of matron $30.00.
The Home Service work is with service and ex-service men exclusively, though a few civilians cases have been handled which came to the notice of the office in the year ending Oct. 1920. The Home Service Office paid 225 calls and wrote 962 letters for ex-service men or their families. Some of those served were still in the service. Services rendered included getting Liberty Bonds purchased while in Service and held at Washington. Lost Baggage, Travel pay, Bonus, in formation regarding Service men. Insurance on persons dying in service or be-cause of service. Compensation for war disabilities, affidavits supporting dependency claims, allotments, location of graves in France, certificates of disability. etc. There were a total of 1144 services rendered or contacts made and $466.25 spent on grants and loans to those in need. These average 95 services per month with $34.17 spent on loans or grant. $160.00 of the loans made were re-turned before Oct. 1st, 1920.
Besides these services above mentioned two French Brides in Wellington and an English Bride in Portland were seen and assisted to fit themselves with their new environment; 8 men were hospitalized who had war disabilities. 500 discharges were copied, 5 applications for vocational education and 40 applications for dental work were sent into Washington.
Back in 1918 and 1919 when the men were still away the services rendered were quite different.

Child welfare-44
Families in need because of delayed allotments were perhaps the most frequently aided. In 1918 from May to September an average of 100 cases per month were
handled and in 1919, the average was 164 to an average expenditure for
relief of $57.25 per month. The total relief for the year October 19, to October 20 was $687.09.
Now that the Home Service work has lightened up a great deal, many Chapters are extending their service to civilian families, where no local organization employe a trained social welfare worker. The Wellington Branch has some funds on hand which they can use for the benefit of Wellington and it seems a most fitting as well as much needed thing to do, to furnish this sort of service for Wellington. It is called Peace-time Civilian Relief and while it does not necessarily mean that a branch or Chapter which takes it on for a year will continue to do so indefinitely, it is to be hoped that the city or county will take the whole thing over.
Regarding tht Rest Room it should be said that it is not being patronized to its capacity at the present time. The matron will care for children while she is there in the afternoon, too, but compartivly few come. It was hoped that country families would come there on Saturdays when in town for trading, but they either dont know about it or find it inconvenient to climb the rather steep stairs necessary to get there. Perhaps if it were on the ground floor or more easily accessible it would be used more. The matron has been able to be of great service by preparing the 30 layettes for overseas which were the Chapter's quota for making by cutting them out. These are all given out now and the Chapter has no other production for overseas or hospitals to prepare. Unless some such work as salvaging for a shop to be conducted locally or a loan chest, etc., the auxiliaries will have to be disorganized.

to
Family Welfare 45
Recommendations on Family Welfare Work
It is recommended that the Wellington Branch of Red Cross em~ ploy as soon as possible, a trained and competent social worker who will care for civilian families applying to the Red Cross for aid or service, and whose services as an investigator will be made available to the following:
1. The City Welfare Board
2. The Board of Associated Charities.
3. The County Commissioner of this district.
4. The Juvenile Court Probation Officer and Truant Officer for Cases in Wellington.
5. The City Board of Health for cases of Venereal Disease and immorality among women and girls especially.
6. The school nurse and the Red Cross Public Health Nurse in local cases needing follow-up work.
7. The County Health Officer, especially for indigent
tuberculosis cases, needing follow-up work, after medical and nursing care have been provided.
For the best results this social welfare worker should be made, by courtesy, exofficer member of the following boards and committees, -
1. City Welfare Board
2. Board of Associated Charities.
She should also be invited to membership in the Women's Service Club in order to secure the best cooporation between that organization and hers.
Since it is the custom according to rule of the Division Headquarters, before this work in undertaken, the branch organization should formally request permission to extend their activities to peace time civilian relief.
A other suggested change in organization is that, when this social worker comes to enter upon this work, the civilian relief committee of the organization be strengthened and aided to, in order that it may function as an advisory committee to her in her work, acting in much the same way as what are known as Case-work Advisory Committees elsewhere.

Family Welfare 46
1. In order to further the work of the Chapter along health
lines, and supplement the work of their public Health Nurse, it is suggested
The Junior Red Cross finance, next fall beginning not later than September 15th, possibly September 1st, some nutrition clinics and classes in connection with the schools and also for pre-school children. This would involve bringing a specialist from St. Louis, probably, to organize the work and classes, all over the county. Then this worker could wither turn this over to a local person whom the Chapter would hire, and who would carry out the plans over a longer period, or herself, finish it up, taking a period of about 6 weeks to accomplish this.
This work would, of course, be carried on in cooperation with the local school Nurse and the Red Cross Public Health Nurse in the county.
11. Since there has been a very evident need for more publicity in connection with the Red Cross Public Health Nurse's work both in Wellington and over the county, it is suggested that the Executive Committee of the Chapter appoint a Vice Chairman of Nursing Committee who will be able to secure the needed publicity, and interpret the Nurse's work to the Community.
III. It is also suggested that the Chapter send their Public Health Nurse to the Nurses' Convention in Topeka, in April, which is being held for the nurses all over the state.
IV. Rest Room, Salvage and Shop.
It is recommended that the rest room be moved to more favorable location, preferable a ground floor one, as soon as possible; also that since the quota of overseas garments and layettes has almost been completed, the auxilliary units now working be requested to keep on producing for the branch, the following which can he sold or given to the needy.
1. Children's dresses and aprons made of Men's old skirts donated to the Red Cross, by people in the County
2. Aprons made of new unbleached muslin with gingham applique patches.
3. Sun hats made of some new material.
Later as the work developes, other salvaging may be undertaken, Articles sold would be meant to be for the convenience mainly of the poorer class of families, and accordingly priced very nominally. It would be the expectation, probably that the rest room matron prepare the garments for making and conduct a shop where they might be displayed, sold, or given away, the revenue to go to the Chapter Treasury.

- Supplement -
Agencies doing Welfare work in Wellington
American Red Cross, Farmers Bank Bldg.
Mrs. Geo. F. Elsass, Exec. Sec.
City Park Commissioner.
Mrs. Sellers.
City Board of Health.
Dr. W. W. Martin, Health Officer
Chief of Police
City Attorney
City Police Dept.-Chief
City School Board-Mrs. A. D. Catling Supt.
Schools.
City Welfare Board - Members.
Mr. R. E. Hangen, Mr. W. W. Calwen Mrs. T. F. Calwen, Mrs. C. W. Ward,
Mr. Lena Rush.
Commercial Blub-
Mr. C. L. Scott, Secretary
Associated Charities Board.
Mrs. S. B. Pierpont, President.
County Commissioner
Mr. Chas. F. Martin(for this district)
County Poor Farm
( Under County Commissioners' Jurisdiction)
Hatcher Hospital(Private)
County Health Officer-Dr. T. H. Jamison, St. - Lukes, Hospital-(City)
Ministerial Alliance,
Rev. Bash, Pres.
County Farm Bureau,
Mr. V. A. Boys-Agent
Sumner Co. Farmer's Cooperative Ass'n
Mr. Glen Willett, President
|Wellington Retail Merchants Bureau
Mr. Lynn, Secy.
Juvenile Court:
Wendell L. Reedy, Judge
Mr. Sam Dick, Probation Officer
County Superintendent of Schools,
Mrs. Kate Sniggs,
School Nurse,
Miss Warner-Farmers Bank Bldg.,
Red Cross Public Health Nurse.
Miss Ethel Bailey-Farmers Bank Bldg.
Boy Scouts
Mr. L. F. Garberana, Commander
Girl Scouts,
9th Ward School, Headquarters.
Golf Club-Park Commission.
Rotary Club
Mr. Chas. McCormick, Pres.
Women's Service Club,
Mrs. Lynch, Pres.
American Legion
Mr. Paul McCormick, Commander
Labor Unions-Headed by Mr. Glen Willet-GEngineers, Firemen
Machinist, Retail Clerk, Railroad Clerks, Barbers, Carpenters, Members, Laborers, included.
Better Government Club,
Mrs. Riner, Chairman.
Other Organizations, Clubs, etc.
Cary Circle-
Wellington Chautauqua Association,
2nd Floor, City Hall.
Wellington Lodge No. 150, A. F. & A. M.
G. E. Ruth, W. W.
Wellington Shrine Club, C. J. Wells, Pres. Maple Camp 873 W. W. A-R E. Hangan, Clerk, Woodmen of the World, Aaron Murry, C. C Women's Relief Corps. Mrs. Hulldak, Dick, Pres. Wellington Lodge No. 133-Oddfellows. R. l. Reed N. G.
Live Oak Grove, No. 18. W. C. Mrs. E. R. Wright, Guardian Brotherhood of Railway Clerks, No. 195 J. P. Denny Security Benefit Association, No. 105. Anna R. Jaggers, Pres. Royal Neighbors of America, Mrs. Kenia Downing,
Central Labor Union. 0. D. Haley, Pres.
Grand Army of the Republic B. F. Brill, P. C
B. P. 0. E. Dr. A. Shettler - E. R
Ancient Order United Workmen, F. S. Miller W. W.
I. A. of W. No. 1094 S. M. Jones, Pres.
Prentis Club Treble Clef Wednesday Afternoon Blue Monday Social Embroidery Nevele
Kilkare
Parliamentary
South End Bridge
Shufflers
Anon
Five Hundred.
Pastime

Original Format

Typed manuscript, 56 pages, 8 1/2 X 11, was in a stapled binding, but pages are now loose inside the binding.